Herc How-To: Assemble a Chain Sling

how-to-assemble-chain-sling

Herc How-To: assemble a chain sling

Chain is often used to tie down loads, for lifting applications and to tow loads – however, the rigging industry’s safety standards have developed in recent years, and chain used for lifting must meet certain specifications. Read on for our tips on how to assemble a chain sling.  

Chain slings are among some of the most popular options for to lift a load – they’re often used to lift spreader beams, for example. Chain slings are durable, ductile, can resist high temperatures, rips & tears and in certain applications, are adjustable – but how do you determine the best chain sling for your project needs?

Herc How-To: two kinds of chain assembly

Two types of chain slings are used to for rigging and lifting applications – mechanical assembly and welded assembly. Chain slings are made with a minimum safety or design factor of 4:1.

The most common chain slings used in rigging and lifting are mechanically assembled since they’re quick to produce and it can be done with basic tools. Chain slings are made by a variety of manufacturers and in many different configurations.

Herc How-To: mechanically assembled chain sling hardware

Construct a basic mechanically assembled chain sling with this hardware:

  • Master Link
  • Mechanical Jointing Device
  • Shortening Clutch (if required)
  • Chain
  • Hook (other fitting as required)
  • Tag

Herc How-To: welded assembly

Welded slings are less commonly used. They take more time to manufacture, since once they’re made they undergo a heat treatment so they’re safe to use in a lifting application. This takes days, versus the minutes it takes to together a mechanically assembled chain sling.

Construct a welded assembly chain sling with this hardware:

  • Master Link
  • Welded Intermediate Link
  • Welded Connecting Link
  • Chain
  • Hook (other fittings if required) ** not pictured
  • Tag

Herc How-To: assemble a chain sling with correct chain grades

The marking grade for chains is recognized by numbers which are found on the chain link. Chain grades for chain sling assembly start at Grade 80 – Grade 80, 100 and 120 are used for lifting applications. However, do not use chain grade marks to determine overhead lifting applications. Do not use grade 30, 40 or 70 chains for overhead lifting.

These grades are used for lifting as they’re ductile and can cope with “shock-loading” that can happen while rigging.

Herc How-To: find the right assembly for you

Follow these steps to assemble the best chain sling for your lifting needs.

  1. Determine the weight of the load to lift, it’s working load limit and any angles that will affect the lift – read our blog on how to calculate load weight for detailed steps.
  2. Head to the dimension/specification chart provided by the chain sling’s manufacturer. Find the chain sling configuration* that will suit your load and lift.
  3. Head to the assembly chart found in the catalogue or website of your respective distributer. Find the Working Load Limit (WLL) to lift at the top of the chart. Find the column that represents size/length, which will be donated in centimetres, inches or millimetres. Be sure to size up. Example: if your load’s WLL is 3,000lbs the chart may give you two options – a WLL of 2,650 and 4,500. Choose the chain length that corresponds with the WLL of 4,500lbs – it’s better to have too much capacity than not enough.
  4. Use the same instructions from Step 3 to choose hardware/fittings from the respective specification chart(s). Example: You’ve chose the DOG sling configuration – this means you must find an oblong shaped masterlink and a grab hook that corresponds to the WLL.
For example: Jim is planning to lift a load with a WLL of 3,000lbs and wants to assemble a chain sling.

Step 1) Jim finds the WLL column of his retailer.

Step 2) Find the WLL – since 3,000lbs isn’t on the chart, we choose the next one up which has a WLL of 4,500lbs.

Step 3) Jim needs chain with 1.79in. length.

how-to-assemble-chain-sling

 
* Chain Sling Configurations

Configurations are denoted by an acronym – the first letter represents the number of sling legs, the second letter represents the fitting at the top of the sling and the third letter represents the bottom fitting. Example: the “O” in DOG represents an “oblong shaped master link”.

Single-Leg 
     
COSingle chain sling with masterlink 
SOSSingle chain sling with masterlink and sling hook
SOGSingle chain sling with masterlink and grab hook
SOFSingle chain sling with masterlink and foundry hook
SSSSingle chain sling with sling hook each end 
SGSSingle chain sling with grab hook and sling hook
ASOSAdjustable single chain with masterlink and sling hook 
ASOFAdjustable single chain with masterlink and foundry hook 
ASOGAdjustable single chain with masterlink and grab hook 
SOCHSingle chain sling with sliding choker  
SOSLSingle chain sling with with self locking hooks 
2-Leg
     
DOSDouble chain sling with masterlink and sling hook
DOGDouble chain sling with masterlink and grab hook
DOFDouble chain sling with masterlink and foundry hook
ADOSAdjustable double chain sling with masterlink and sling hook
ADOGAdjustable double chain sling with masterlink and grab hook
DOCHDouble chain sling with masterlink and sliding choker 
DOSLDouble chain sling with with self locking hooks 
ADOSLAdjustable double chain sling with with self-locking hooks 
3-Leg
     
TOSTriple chain sling with masterlink and sling hook
TOGTriple chain sling with masterlink and grab hook
TOFTriple chain sling with masterlink and foundry hook
TOSLTriple  chain sling with with self locking hooks 
4-Leg
     
QOSQuadruple chain sling with masterlink and sling hook
QOGQuadruple chain sling with masterlink and grab hook
QOFQuadruple chain sling with masterlink and foundry hook
QOSLQuadruple chain sling with self-locking hooks 

 

Hercules SLR – Custom Chain Sling Assembly, Inspections, Repairs and more

We make custom slings to fit your needs, no matter the application. Damage found on chain slings can be inspected, repaired or replaced if needed – e-mail us at info@herculesslr.com to purchase a chain sling, find out more about how to assemble a chain sling or to have a chain sling repaired or inspected. 

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Hercules SLR is part of the Hercules Group of Companies which offers a unique portfolio of businesses nationally with locations from coast to coast. Our companies provide an extensive coverage of products and services that support the success of a wide range of business sectors across Canada including the energy, oil & gas, manufacturing, construction, aerospace, infrastructure, utilities, oil and gas, mining and marine industries.

Hercules Group of Companies is comprised of: Hercules SLRHercules Machining & Millwright ServicesSpartan Industrial MarineStellar Industrial Sales and Wire Rope Atlantic.

 

Herc How-To: Calculate Load Weight

Herc-How-To-calculate load weight

How-To Calculate Load Weight: the basics

An important aspect of rigging is measurement – there are a number of important things to determine and consider before you calculate load weight and proceed with the lift.

Read on for basic tips from our Hercules SLR experts and learn how to properly calculate a load’s weight.

The lifting equipment used to raise your load should not only support the object’s weight, but it’s volume, height, centre of gravity and any other aspects of the load that could make lifting awkward. Read on to discover the best way to calculate load weight.

Estimation is important—you must be able to accurately guess a load’s weight and centre of gravity. Inaccurate estimations can lead to severe consequences.

Evaluate the load you will lift. Evaluation must include the load’s weight, centre of gravity location, balance, stability and nature should be reasonably determined before you proceed with the lift. NEVER guess the weight of a load.

How-To Calculate Load Weight: method to establish load weight

  • Inspect the load for any identification or mark that indicates weight. If found, check that it’s the weight of the entire load, not just a single component of an assembly;
  • Check supporting documentation or load weight;
  • Check any drawings/diagrams that accompany the load for it’s weight listing;
  • If the load is still on the transport vehicle, determine the load’s weight via a weighbridge;
  • Estimate the load’s weight with available technical data, like tables or weights.

 

How-To Calculate Load Weight: total weight on angular lifts

how-to-calculate-load-weight-rigging-hercules-slr

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How-To Calculate Load Weight: example 1—steel sheet/block

how-to-calculate-load-weight-hercules-slr

Figure 1
  • Calculate the weight of a steel plate (shown in figure 1) 2ft wide X 5ftlong X 1inch (0.0833ft) thick.
  • Use the formula:
  • Volume = Length X Width X Height
  • Unit weight of steel is 490 lbs/ft³ 
  • Volume = 5ft X 2ft X 0.0833ft X 490 lbs/ft³
  • Weight = 408.3 lbs

 

How-To Calculate Load Weight: calculate force in slings

It’s important to understand the different angles that will impact the load to lift. The included angle is the angle created between opposite sling legs (ex. 0-90°). Using the included angle is known as the Trigonometric rating.

The vertical angle is the angle created by one sling leg from the vertical (ex. 0-45°). This is called the Uniform Method of rating. All new slings must use this method.

The horizontal sling angle is the angle that forms between the sling leg and surface of the load.

how-to-calculate-load-weight
Figure 2
Determine Vertical Share

When the centre of gravity is equal between pick points, the sling and fittings will carry an equal share of the load.

Centre of Gravity and Sling Loading
how-to-calculate-load-weight
Figure 3

When the centre of gravity isn’t equal between pick points, the sling and fittings won’t carry an equal share of the load.

The sling attached to the closest to the centre of gravity will carry the greatest share of the load.

In this example, Sling B will be carrying more than Sling A.

As you can see from the image, ‘Sling B’ carries more weight than ‘Sling A’.

 

 

 

 

 

How-To Calculate Load Weight: additional loading

Before you rig a load to lift, consider these factors that may affect the load, in addition to its weight:

  • Wind blowing against the load;
  • Shock loading;
  • Additional below-the-hook lifting devices;
  • Loads frozen to the ground;
  • Loads snagging;
  • Water, snow or ice accumulation on load;
  • Dynamic side-to-side movements;
  • Extreme temperatures.

HERC HOW-TO BLOGS

Herc How-To: Assemble a Chain Sling 

Herc How-To: Avoid These Common Rigging Mistakes 

Shackles: A Hercules Hardware How-To 


Need a lift? Call Hercules SLR

Have a heavy object that needs a lift? Don’t want to do all of this math on your own? We understand.

Hercules SLR creates custom rigging solutions for our clients’ specific needs (check out this custom sling we made for the Town of Oakville Marina!) and the service doesn’t end there—We provide inspections, repairs and service for:

  • Wire Rope
  • Fall Protection
  • Lifting Equipment/Gear
  • Rigging Hardware
  • Hoists & Cranes
  • Winches & Hydraulics

Don’t see your gear on the list or have more questions? Give us a call and our experts will match you with the right service or product for your needs.

Interested in learning more? We offer training courses at the Hercules Training Academy for these, and more:

  • Chain Saw Safety
  • Confined Space Entrant & Attendant
  • Fundamentals of Rigging (With Practical)
  • Fundamentals of Overhead Cranes
  • Offshore Rigger Banksman

Drop a line at info@herculesslr.com or training@herculesslr.com for more information on inspections, repairs or to sign-up for a training course.


Hercules SLR is part of the Hercules Group of Companies which offers a unique portfolio of businesses nationally with locations from coast to coast. Our companies provide an extensive coverage of products and services that support the success of a wide range of business sectors across Canada including the energy, oil & gas, manufacturing, construction, aerospace, infrastructure, utilities, oil and gas, mining and marine industries.

Hercules Group of Companies is comprised of: Hercules SLRHercules Machining & Millwright ServicesSpartan Industrial MarineStellar Industrial Sales and Wire Rope Atlantic.

We have the ability to provide any solution your business or project will need. Call us today for more information. 1-877-461-4876. Don’t forget to follow us on FacebookTwitter and LinkedIn for more news and upcoming events.

 

Samson K-100 hoist line: the first synthetic crane rope

Samson K-100 hoist line: first synthetic crane rope-hercules-slr
Samson Rope K-100 Hoist Line: an industry leader

Samson rope’s K-100 hoist rope is the first of its kind – a synthetic rope to be used with mobile cranes for hoisting applications. Traditionally, steel wire rope has been used for lifting applications with cranes – the K-100 is suitable for crane or truck hoist rope, or mobile crane hoist line applications.

K-100 hoist line: what’s the benefit?

The K-100 hoist rope has a high strength-to-weight ratio, bend fatigue durability and is easy to spool. It has a strength similar to wire rope – but reduces load weight by 80%. It also meets maximum line pull requirements with its 5:1 safety factor.

Samson has coated the K-100 rope in their proprietary coating that includes Dyneema® – this improves its cyclic bend performance compared to sheave applications commonly found on mobile cranes. It has a fibre core/cover – specifically, a polyester control core and a high-modulus (low elasticity) blend.

Samson K-100 Crane Hoist features:
  • Corrosion resistant – no rust or lube needed, which helps eliminate environmental concerns
  • Easy handling, reeving and installation
  • Reduced wear on sheaves and drums
  • Reduces number of change outs caused by kinking, bird-caging, or damage from diving
  • Reduces risk of hand injuries from broken wires, increased handling safety
  • Has same load pull and load chart, but with a 5:1 safety factor
  • Standardizes main and auxiliary hoist to one rope
  • Torque-neutral construction reduces load spin and cabling
  • Resistant to drum-crushing
Safety Factor: calculating stress-based design factor

There are different definitions of safety factor across many industries – which is also commonly known as the design factor. The Samson K-100 rope uses the safety or design factor calculation related to rigging and lifting applications.

The safety factor is the theoretical reserve capability of a product, which is determined by dividing the ultimate load by the working load limit (WLL). The ultimate load may also be known as nominal breaking strength. This calculation is expressed as a ratio – the K-100’s safety factor is 5:1.

k100-samson-rope-crane-hoist
Samson K-100 Crane Hoist Elongation
Samson Rope K-100 Hoist Line: weight matters

Another benefit of K-100 crane wire is it’s weight – as we mentioned, it’s 80% lighter than wire rope and can be beneficial for operators who travel during Spring Thaw Restrictions in Canada. Spring Thaw Policies are periods of time during/following Canadian Spring, (specific timelines and affected zones vary from province to province – if you’ve experienced a Spring in Nova Scotia versus British Columbia you know why!) and limit damage to at-risk roads.

Studies show that pavement reacts to a load 50%-70% greater in the Spring. Basically, the same axle a truck drives on daily can cause 5-8 times more damage in the Spring than any other time of the year, due to the heavier load. For mobile operators with a lot of terrain to cover, the K-100’s reduced weight can make your highway travels that much easier.

Samson Rope K-100 Hoist Line: inspection matters, too

No matter how good or durable a rope is, it will show wear and tear after a period of time. Some used rope won’t reduce strength, but many will. Before inspection, consider the following:

  • The length of rope;
  • The time it’s been in service;
  • The type of work it does;
  • Where the damage and the extent of the damage.

On a regular basis, inspect your Samson K-100 rope for the following conditions/damage and take the proper corrective action (repair or retire) based on your findings:

samson-rope-k100-crane-hoist-line-hercules-slr

 

 

Ultimately, Samson’s K-100 crane rope brings increased safety, easy handling and straight-forward inspection procedures. Hercules SLR Business Development Manager, Dwayne Fader says “Steel wire rope will always have its place – but innovations like this that are much lighter and easy to work with are always exciting.”

Information via Samson Rope – Find more information on the K-100 Rope here

Interested in purchasing K-100 Samson Rope for your crane? Drop us a line at sales@HerculesSLR.com or info@herculesslr.com – our experts will find the perfect rope for your lifting needs.

Want more crane training? Participate in our Overhead Crane Operator and Fundamentals of Overhead Crane courses – e-mail training@herculesslr.com to sign up. Or, click here to discover more Hercules SLR training courses.

Need hands-on training? Look no further. Discover our range of Hercules SLR Training Academy courses below:

References: 
- https://www.canadacartage.com/understanding-canadian-spring-thaw-regulations/
- https://www.samsonrope.com/docs/default-source/case-studies/cs_viant_crane_k-100.pdf
- https://samsonrope.com/docs/default-source/case-studies/cs_digging_and_rigging_k-100_web.pdf

Hercules SLR is part of the Hercules Group of Companies which offers a unique portfolio of businesses nationally with locations from coast to coast. Our companies provide an extensive coverage of products and services that support the success of a wide range of business sectors across Canada including the energy, oil & gas, manufacturing, construction, aerospace, infrastructure, utilities, oil and gas, mining and marine industries.

Hercules Group of Companies is comprised of: Hercules SLRHercules Machining & Millwright ServicesSpartan Industrial MarineStellar Industrial Sales and Wire Rope Atlantic.

We have the ability to provide any solution your business or project will need. Call us today for more information. 1-877-461-4876. Don’t forget to follow us on FacebookTwitter and LinkedIn for more news and upcoming events.

 

Women in Industry – Kim Reynolds Warehouse Associate

Kim

Kim Reynolds is our dedicated, hardworking shipper/receiver at our Dartmouth location. We sat down with her to find out more about her and how she decided a career in Shipping was her calling.

Tell us about yourself:

Kim: I was born in Windsor Nova Scotia but grew up in Centre Rawdon. I remember spending a lot of time visiting my grandparents who lived two houses up from us. It was lovely having family so close. We used to have a hobby farm with goats, chickens, pigs and ducks. We also were lucky enough to have two big gardens and a small strawberry patch. Back then money was tight, so we were self-sufficient and grew our own food and harvested our own milk from the goats.

When I turned 16 my parents sold the house and we moved to the Annapolis Valley. It was a shock to the system living in a town having been so used to country living.

I finished my final school years at Kingstec Community College, back then they had grade 10-12 mixed with the college. The year I graduated, was the last time they were mixed, and it reverted to being solely a Community College.

What was your work experience before Hercules?

My work experience is many and varied before joining Hercules. My parents were unable to assist with further education and not wanting to have a large student loan hanging over me I went to out to work full time and took evening and online courses.

I started working when I was 13 and that includes Babysitter, Farm Hand, House Cleaner, Bakery Assistant, Chicken Plant Worker, Infantry Woman and Shipper/Receiver.

What made you decided to work for Hercules?Kim-2

Kim: Having seen the job posting and knowing they were looking for a Warehouse Associate, I did some research on the company and decided it was a good fit, not only with my past work experience but with the company’s values and opportunities it offers for progression. The people are great and working at Hercules is like having an extended family.

Management are very supportive, especially during busy periods, if I need a hand, they roll their sleeves up and muck in, asking what they can do to help. This is the first job where I have ever experienced that happen. This really shows they care about their employees and is just one of the many reasons I enjoy working for Hercules. Everyone is part of the team, looking to play their part in the best way possible.

What challenges do you face on a daily basis?

Kim: Every day is different; in the warehouse we face many different challenges. Organization is key! With so many deliveries coming in, orders to be picked, making sure everything is shipped out on time and emails are answered, multitasking is a must.

Hercules is a safety company. How do you ensure you work safe?

Kim: Every morning I always ensure I wear my correct Personal Protection Equipment. I start the day by doing a forklift check to make sure it is safe to use. When I need to lift boxes that are too heavy I always ask for assistance.

What are your aspirations and goals within the company?

Kim: When I started with Hercules, I knew I wanted progress within the company. I really enjoy my current role but am looking to spread my wings and further my potential in other departments as and when the opportunity presents itself.

What are your passions outside of work?

Kim: When I am note at work you will find me cooking up a storm in the kitchen. I love to bake and enjoy the simple pleasures in life such as spending time with my family and making memories.

Hercules SLR is part of the Hercules Group of Companies which offers a unique portfolio of businesses nationally with locations from coast to coast. Our companies provide an extensive coverage of products and services that support the success of a wide range of business sectors across Canada including the energy, oil & gas, manufacturing, construction, aerospace, infrastructure, utilities, oil and gas, mining and marine industries.

Hercules Group of Companies is comprised of: Hercules SLRHercules Machining & Millwright ServicesSpartan Industrial MarineStellar Industrial Sales and Wire Rope Atlantic.

We have the ability to provide any solution your business or project will need. Call us today for more information. 1-877-461-4876. Don’t forget to follow us on Twitter, LinkedIn and Facebook for more news and upcoming events.

Beam Clamp Applications: safety tips from Brampton, ON

Rigging

Beam clamp applications provide support and better load control. Today, we spoke with rigging experts from Brampton, Ontario to learn more about the three main types of beam clamps—they spoke with us about safe tips for use and how to inspect your beam clamp before application.

Beam clamps: 3 different types

There are three different types of beam clamps:

  1. Scissor type
  2. Adjustable type with fixed jaw
  3. Adjustable type with swivel jaw

1. Beam clamps: scissor type

While not the most popular type of clamp, the scissor beam clamp is still one of the basic types of clamp, and is ideal for lifting applications. It uses scissor action to manipulate the weight of the load to apply clamping load. It’s clamping jaws are rougher, which helps to dig into the load and form a better grip.

Before use, be sure to check its condition—assess the pivot bolt, wear and deformation and check the SWL, identification and use of beam to be used on.

2. Beam Clamps: adjustable type (fixed jaw)

Before use, check the tommy bar, screw thread and screw spigot for wear and deformation. Check SWL and identification, and also check for general condition.

3. Beam Clamps: adjustable type (swivel jaw)

Before use, be sure to check the swivel jaws and ensure they move freely, check the SWL and identification and the tommy bar, screw thread and screw spigot for wear and deformation.

Beam clamp applications: inspect before use!

Before using your beam clamps, be sure to follow these pre-use inspection tips:

  1. Check SWL, Identification no. and colour code
  2. Check SWL of the clamp’s within the weight of the load to lift;
  3. Check the clamp is the correct size for the beam;
  4.  Thoroughly examine the clamp for wear, damage and deterioration—particularly at the hinge and shackle attachment points;
  5. Ensure the screw thread is in good condition—this means it’s not bent and rotates freely;
  6. Check the tommy handle for damage and distortion;
  7. Check jaws for damage, distortion and ensure the swivel type is free to rotate;
  8. Ensure screwed spigots aren’t damaged, distorted or worn excessively.
beam-clamp-applications-bronze-and-blue-hercules-slr
Hercules SLR Bronze & Blue Beam Clamp

Beam clamp applications: more tips for safe usage

  • Don’t exceed the SWL of beam clamp;
  • Don’t exceed SWL of beam that the clamp’s secured to;
  • Make sure the beam clamp is correctly and securely clamped to the beam and the centre line of the clamp suspension point is in alignment with the centre line of beam;
  • Contact the beam clamp supplier before replacing bolts—this could lead to the wrong screw being fitted and may cause damage to the beam clamp;
  • Ensure you’re using a certified beam clamp;
  • Ensure a competent person is applying the beam clamp—a “competent worker or person” is defined differently in each province according to OH&S rules. British Columbia and Quebec are the only two provinces which don’t formally define what a “competent worker/person” is. Click here for the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health & Safety’s definitions of “competent” in each province or territory.
  • If using two clamps in tandem, you may need to use ancillary equipment, like a spreader bar;
  • Use beam clamps for vertical lifts only. (See ‘side loading’ below).

Bronze & Blue Specifications

Beam clamp applications: side loading

Standard beam clamps are designed for in-line use only. If the ID plate says to use the clamp at 0° only, do not use side-loading—use the angle that’s permitted. Beam clamps that are suitable for side loading are fairly new to the lifting industry—the IPU10 and IPU10S by Crosby, for example are meant to lift in any direction. View the Crosby IPU10 flyer and its specs here.

Universal beam clamps can be used as an anchor point to lift and pull, load at any angle up to 90° without lateral and longitudinal de-rating and for low headroom use.

Is your hardware up-to-date? We inspect, repair & certify rigging equipment:

Have your beam clamps been inspected lately? Find more information on our repair, inspection and certification services here.

Don’t worry about tracking equipment inspections—our asset management tool, CertTracker™ is a virtual lifeline to safety—and the best part? It’s free for all customers when your inspection is done by Hercules SLR.

CertTracker™ reminds you of inspection dates and timelines, helps you stay compliant with provincial and national safety standards and overall, reduces the ownership cost of your equipment.

Browse Bronze & Blue here or e-mail us at info@herculesslr.com to rent a beam clamp for your next project.

References: 
- https://dimide.com/blogs/why-dimide/clamp-guide-what-clamp-should-you-use-for-each-job
- https://www.ccohs.ca/Oshanswers/legisl/competent.html

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Hercules SLR is part of the Hercules Group of Companies which offers a unique portfolio of businesses nationally with locations from coast to coast. Our companies provide an extensive coverage of products and services that support the success of a wide range of business sectors across Canada including the energy, oil & gas, manufacturing, construction, aerospace, infrastructure, utilities, oil and gas, mining and marine industries.

Hercules Group of Companies is comprised of: Hercules SLRHercules Machining & Millwright ServicesSpartan Industrial MarineStellar Industrial Sales and Wire Rope Atlantic.

Rigging Glossary: ABC’s of rigging from C-D

rigging-terms-crane-hercules-slr

There are many terms and definitions when it comes to the rigging and lifting industry, so we decided to break it down for you with a rigging glossary series—the ABC’s of rigging!

On our last glossary we listed some common rigging terms from A-C and ended with ‘crane’—today, let’s continue where we left off. There are many different types of cranes—(more than 10!)—so we decided to continue with those rigging terms.

Keep reading our glossary to discover rigging terms from Crane-D. Stay tuned to our blog page for our next series of rigging terms from D to E.

C—’Crane’

Read on to discover rigging terms that begin with ‘C’.

Crane (automatic): A crane that operates through a preset cycle(s) when it operates.

Bridge crane: A crane with a single or multiple-girder movable bridge that carries a movable trolley or fixed hoisting mechanism. It travels on an overhead fixed runway structure.

Crawler crane: A crane with rotating power plant structure, operating machinery and mounted base—it also has crawler treads for travel. This crane hoists, lowers and swings loads at various radii.

Double-girder crane: Has two bridge girders supported, in-between the end trucks.

Floor-operated crane: A power-operated crane controlled by an operator from the floor or walkway located in the crane-way. It uses power control switches or buttons on a pendant.

Gantry crane: A crane similar to an overhead bridge crane, except the bridge that carries the trolley is supported on two or more legs that run on fixed rails or another runway—usually 3 meters (10 feet) or more below the bottom of the bridge.

rigging-terms-jib-crane
Jib crane

Jib crane: A fixed crane with a vertical rotating member supported at the bottom (some types have them on top), where an arm extends to carry the hoist trolley. Jib cranes are normally found on a vertical column as part of the jib crane or mounted on existing structures (ex. a wall-mounted jib crane).

Manually operated crane: A crane where the hoist mechanism is driven by pulling an endless chain, or whose travel mechanism is driven by manually moving the load.

Monorail crane: A crane or hoist attached to a trolley that runs on flanges of a structural beam.

Overhead crane: A crane with a single or multiple girder movable bridge, carrying a movable trolley or fixed hoisting mechanism, and traveling on an overhead fixed runway structure.

Power-operated crane: The mechanism is driven by electricity, air, hydraulic, or an internal combustion engine.

Remote-operated crane: A crane controlled by any method other than a pendant, rope, or attached cab.

Semi-gantry crane: Gantry cranes have one end of the bridge supported by leg(s) that run on a fixed rail or runway. The other end is supported by end trucks running on an elevated rail or runway.

Single-girder crane: A crane having one bridge girder mounted between the end trucks—it’s also supported from the end trucks.

Wall crane: A crane with a jib that’s supported from a side wall or line of columns of a building. It’s a traveling-type crane and operates on a runway attached to the side wall or line of columns.

Craneway:  Area (length and width) served by crane.

Creep speed: A slow and constant fixed rate of motion of the hoist, trolley, or bridge. This is typically at 1 to 10% of the normal full-load speed.

Critical diameter: Diameter of the smallest bend for a given wire rope that allows wires and strands to adjust themselves by relative movement while remaining in normal position.

Critical load/lift: A load or lift that creates difficult conditions—this can range from a delay, to anything that compromises the safety and operations of a facility, high levels of hazardous materials to anything that causes injury or illness.

Critical service: The use of equipment or tackle for hoisting, rigging, or handling of critical items, or other items in, around, or above spaces containing critical items.

Crossover points: These are points where the rope contacts the previous rope layer when spooling multi-layer rope on a drum.

Cross rod: Wire used to join metal mesh spirals into a complete fabric.

Crow’s foot: A wedge socket type wire rope end termination.

Cylindrical drum: Hoisting drum with uniform diameter.

‘D’

Read on to discover rigging terms that begin with ‘D’.

D.C.: Direct current.

D/d Ratio: A term regarding wire rope. D = Diameter of curvature where rope is bent. d = diameter of rope.

Dead end: Point to fasten one rope in a running rope system. The other end is fastened at the rope drum.

Deadman: An object or structure that exists or is built to be used as an anchor for a guy rope.

Deceleration stress: Additional stress imposed by decreased load velocity.

Deflection: The point where a load member sags cause by imposed live or dead loads—typically measured at mid-span as the distance along a straight line between supports. It can also mean any deviation from a straight, horizontal line.

A derrick

Derrick: A piece of equipment used to lift or lower loads. It’s made of a mast or equal member held at the head by braces or guys—it can be used with or without a boom, and is used with hoists and ropes.

Design Factor (sometimes referred to as safety factor): An industry term usually computed by dividing the catalog Breaking Strength by the catalog Working Load Limit and generally expressed as a ratio. For example: 4 to 1.

Diameter (wire rope): The measurement around the wire rope, space wire rope will contain.

Direct geared: A hoist with one or more drum geared directly to its power source.

Dog leg: Permanent short bend or kink in wire rope caused by improper use.

Dragline: Wire rope used to pull an excavating/drag bucket. It’s also used to express a particular type of

A dragline mining coal

mobile crane that uses a drag bucket during excavation.

Drifting: Pulling a suspended load laterally to change its horizontal position.

Drift point: Point on a travel motion controller that releases brake while the motor isn’t energized. This allows you to coast before the brake is set.

Drive: An assembly that consists of motors, couplings, gear, and gear case(s) used to propel a bridge, trolley, or hoist.

Drive girder: Girder where bridge drive, cross shaft, walk, railing, and operator’s cab are mounted.

Drum: The diameter of a barrel of a cylinder drum or tapered, conical drum. This is where cable is wound for use or storage. The drum may also refer to the cylindrical member where rope is wound to lift or lower the load.

Drum capacity (rope): Length of a specific diameter of rope that can be wound on a drum.

Drum hoist: A mechanism that uses one or more rope drums. This is also called a hoist, winch, or hoisting engine.

Dynamic loading: Loads fed into the machine/components by moving forces.


Hercules SLR is part of the Hercules Group of Companies which offers a unique portfolio of businesses nationally with locations from coast to coast. Our companies provide an extensive coverage of products and services that support the success of a wide range of business sectors across Canada including the energy, oil & gas, manufacturing, construction, aerospace, infrastructure, utilities, oil and gas, mining and marine industries.

Hercules Group of Companies is comprised of: Hercules SLRHercules Machining & Millwright ServicesSpartan Industrial MarineStellar Industrial Sales and Wire Rope Atlantic.

PPE-volution – How the Golden Gate Bridge Inspired PPE

Brooklyn bridge workers

America’s Industrial Revolution and ingenuity brought about many important advances in worker safety and PPE (Personal Protection Equipment).

At the start of the American Industrial Revolution, worker safety and health were nowhere near the priority they are today. As manufacturing grew, so too did worker injuries and deaths. The idea of safe work grew slowly from a small glimmer to a bright flame inside the collective consciousness of the American workforce.

Although the creation of OSHA regulations was many decades away, the evolution of PPE progressed on its own with the creation of new types of protective devices and advancements in pre-existing devices. Much of this early PPE had a major influence on worker safety’s advancement and will continue to do so.

Hard-Headed PPE Golden Gate Bridge
San Francisco’s Golden Gate Bridge, built in 1933, is an excellent early example of PPE’s influence on safety. Constructing a cable-suspension bridge that was 4,200 feet long was a task that had not been attempted before, one that presented many hazards. The project’s chief engineer, Joseph Strauss, was committed to making its construction as safe as possible.

The bridge’s construction played a particularly significant role in the successful development of one form PPE: It was the first major project that required all of its workers to wear hard hats. Although the hard hat was in its infancy at the time, head protection wasn’t new; gold miners had learned long before the importance of taking steps to protect against falling debris. Michael Lloyd, head protection manager at Bullard – a company in business since 1898, said many early miners wore bowler hats, which were hard felt hats with rounded crowns. Often dubbed “Iron Hats,” these were stuffed with cotton to create a cushioning barrier against blows.

Inspired by the design of his “doughboy” Army helmet, Edward Bullard returned home from World War I and began designing what was to become known as the “hard-boiled hat.” The hat was made of layered canvas that was steamed to impregnate it with resin, sewn together, and varnished into its molded shape. Bullard was awarded the patent in 1919. Later that year, the Navy approached Bullard with a request for some sort of head protection for its shipyard workers. The hat’s first internal suspension was added to increase its effectiveness, and the product’s use quickly spread to lumber workers, utility workers, and construction workers. By the time of the Hoover Dam’s construction in 1931, many workers were voluntarily wearing the headgear. Soon after, the Golden Gate Bridge construction provided a true test of the hard hat’s protective capability because falling rivets were one of the major dangers during the project.

Other innovations came in the form of different materials. In 1938, Bullard released the first aluminum hard hat. It was more durable and comfortable, but it conducted electricity and did not hold up well to the elements. In the ’40s, phenolic hats became available as a predecessor to fiberglass hats. Thermoplastics became the preferred material a decade later for many head protection products; it’s still used by many manufacturers today.
PPE-Hard-hats
From Left to right: Vintage Bullard Miners hats, Vintage Bullard Hard Boiled Hard Hat 1930’s (Used on the Golden Gate Bridge Project, Hard Boiled aluminum Safety hard hat w/Liner and a current day hard hat

In 1953, Bullard introduced the process of injection-molded hats. “Before, [thermoplastic] was kind of laid out on a mold. In the injection-mold process you actually have a closed mold that you pump into. It makes a more consistent helmet and a higher-quality product, which in the long run is also going to be the same thickness all the way through. It’s going to be a safer helmet,” Lloyd said.

Despite the hard hat’s effectiveness and relatively low cost, its use wasn’t officially required at most job sites until the passage of the Occupational Safety and Health Act in 1970. OSHA’s head protection standard, 1910.135, obligated employees to protect workers and instructed manufacturers and employers to turn to the American National Standards Institute’s Z89.1 standard for the appropriate usage guidelines.

Many new materials have since been created, such as the use of General Electric’s high-heat-resistant polyphthalate-carbonate resin in firefighters’ helmets. New hard hats have been designed that provide side protection, which are designated type 2 hats in ANSI Z89.1. “A hard hat was originally designed to protect if something falls from that sky and hits you in the head,” Lloyd said. “But what happens if you run into something? What happens if you bend over and something hits your helmet?”

Because hard hats are a mature market, except for the development of other materials, most innovations will be comfort features and technologies enabling them to withstand different temperature extremes, Lloyd predicted. Easier-to-use designs are appearing that allow users to adjust a hard hat’s suspension with one hand. In the last couple of years, manufacturers have come up with different types of vented helmets designed to help workers keep cool. Hats are accessorized with attachable face shields, visors, and ear muffs, and some have perspiration-absorbing liners. Some come with AM/FM radios, walkie-talkies, and camcorders.

Netting a Safe Return
Although primitive by today’s standards, the solution for the problem of falls also was addressed during construction of the Golden Gate Bridge. Three years into the construction, delays had convinced Strauss to invest more than $130,000 (these were Depression-era dollars, remember) on a vast net similar to those used in a circus. Suspended under the bridge, it extended 10 feet wider and 15 feet farther than the bridge itself. This gave workers the confidence to move quickly across the slippery steel construction. There were reports of workers being threatened with immediate dismissal if found purposely diving into the net.

Strauss’ net was heralded as a huge success until the morning of Feb. 16, 1937, when the west side of a stripping platform bearing a crew of 11 men broke free from its moorings. After tilting precariously for a moment, the other side broke free and the platform collapsed into the net, which contained two other crew members who were scraping away debris. One platform worker, Tom Casey, managed to jump and grab a bridge beam before the platform fell; he hung there until rescued. The net held the platform and the others for a few seconds before it ripped and fell into the water. Two of the 12 men who fell survived.

Read the original article here.

At Hercules SLR we provide a wide range of PPE solutions, from Lanyards and harnesses, to hard hats and rescue equipment.  We also repair, service and certify PPE equipment. We stock leading industry brands and can provide you with expert advise on your PPE options depending on your project. Call us on 1-877-461-4876 for more information.

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Hercules SLR is part of the Hercules Group of Companies which offers a unique portfolio of businesses nationally with locations from coast to coast. Our companies provide an extensive coverage of products and services that support the success of a wide range of business sectors across Canada including the energy, oil & gas, manufacturing, construction, aerospace, infrastructure, utilities, oil and gas, mining and marine industries.

Hercules Group of Companies is comprised of: Hercules SLRHercules Machining & Millwright ServicesSpartan Industrial MarineStellar Industrial Sales and Wire Rope Atlantic.

Are the Technicians Inspecting your Gear Qualified?

LEEA Header

LEEA – Lifting Standards Worldwide™

Hercules Inspectors are LEEA trained nationally. LEEA, the Lifting Equipment Engineers Association is the respected and authoritative representative body for those who work in every aspect of the industry, from design, manufacture, refurbishment and repair, through to the hire, maintenance and use of lifting equipment.

The next time your equipment is due for inspection, make sure Hercules SLR is your first choice for expert advice and service.

Credentials

Established across the globe LEEA has over 1170 member companies based in 69 countries. Hercules SLR is proud to be one of them.

LEEA has played a key role in this specialized field for over seventy years, from training and standards setting through to health and safety, the provision of technical and legal advice, and the development of examination and licensing systems.

LEEA represents all its members at the highest levels across a range of both public and private bodies, including various government departments, as well as nationally and internationally recognized professional and technical institutions.

LEEA are ISO 9001:2015 registered and an Associate Member of DROPS (Dropped Objects Prevention Scheme).

LEEA is actively involved in all aspects of the industry, promoting the highest technical and safety standards and offering a wide range of services and support to their Members worldwide.

History of the Association

The origins of the Lifting Equipment Engineers Association (LEEA) can be traced back to wartime Britain in 1943; a small group of competing companies came together to address what they perceived as a serious threat to their livelihoods. On 3rd June, nine people representing eight chain testing houses met at the Great Eastern Hotel, near Liverpool Street Station, and the idea to form an association to take on the might of government was conceived. Several weeks later, a draft set of rules and regulations was drawn up. During that process, a decision was made that, regardless of size, all members should be considered equal, both in terms of influence and financial contribution and the annual subscription was set at £4 and 4 shillings (£4.20).
The London Chain Testers Association was the name chosen by the founding members and was a clear reflection of the nature and location of the businesses involved. However, evidence shows that as this small group quickly made headway in negotiations with the government, attention turned to other areas where it was felt that co-operative action could be of mutual benefit. These included exploring the potential for pricing agreements, block insurance, the use of collective purchasing to secure more favourable deals from manufacturers, and adherence to British Standards to improve quality and consistency within the industry.By 1946, the association’s geographical boundaries expanded. Members were now actively sought from across the country, a move highlighted by a change of name to The Chain Testers Association of Great Britain.With the immediate concerns of a wartime economy behind them, the following decades of the 20th century can be seen as a series of landmarks that would ultimately establish the association as an authority on safe lifting and the industry’s foremost provider of training and qualifications for the test, examination and maintenance of overhead lifting equipment. Milestones in this period included:

  • The publication of the Chain Testers’ Handbook in 1953. Predominantly the work of Mr. C H A McCaully of W&E Moore, this brought together for the first time all the essential information required by the ‘man at the bench’ – the chain tester.
  • In 1959 it was followed by the examination scheme for lifting equipment engineers. In 1981, the Code of Practice for the Safe Use of Lifting Equipment (COPSULE) was launched.
  • In 1983, training courses were introduced to prepare students for exams that are now sat by several hundred candidates around the world every year.

Towards the end of the 20th century, important developments took place within the association’s infrastructure, and the nature of member companies changed to include a far wider range of activities. Notable events include the set-up of the organisation’s first independent office in 1977, and a third name change—to the Lifting Equipment Engineers Association in 1988.

With the introduction of the Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER) in 1998, LEEA’s training, qualifications and publications had to be fundamentally reworked to reflect this new legislation, and the association’s support and guidance became even more important to members obliged to comply with the requirements of the new legislation.

This legislative upheaval combined with the all-pervasive impact of globalisation, and an absence of sector-specific health and safety legislation—so, many companies who operated in these parts of the world began to adopt LOLER as best practice, which further enhanced the appeal of LEEA membership.

Since the turn of the century, LEEA’s development has reflected these trends and milestones have included:

Iran-Liftex-Exhibition-2018-Elevators-Industrial-Tehran-Iran

  • In 2006, The launch of the LiftEx trade show;
  • In 2007, the move to new headquarters and a purpose-built training centre, an ever increasing portfolio of practical courses to complement online distance learning provision;
  • In 2009, the introduction of the TEAM card registration and identity scheme for qualified engineers and technicians.

Perhaps the most striking is LEEA’s transformation into a truly international body. Regardless of where they are based, there is now no distinction between members – all are subject to the same technical audits prior to being granted full membership, with regular follow-up visits as long as they wish to remain part of the association. Dedicated local groups are now operating in the Middle East and Australia, and LEEA staff have become globetrotters, regularly meeting existing and potential members, as well as a host of other stakeholders, right across the world.

Learn more about LEEA on their website here.

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Hercules SLR is part of the Hercules Group of Companies which offers a unique portfolio of businesses nationally with locations from coast to coast. Our companies provide an extensive coverage of products and services that support the success of a wide range of business sectors across Canada including the energy, oil & gas, manufacturing, construction, aerospace, infrastructure, utilities, oil and gas, mining and marine industries.

Hercules Group of Companies is comprised of: Hercules SLRHercules Machining & Millwright ServicesSpartan Industrial MarineStellar Industrial Sales and Wire Rope Atlantic.

A Brief History of Elevator Wire Ropes

Elevator rope

The humble hoisting rope occupies a unique place in the history of vertical transportation. A simple hemp rope lies at the center of one of the best-known elevator stories — Elisha Graves Otis’ demonstration of his Improved Safety Device at the 1854 Crystal Palace in New York City.

Currently, a sophisticated carbon nanotube “rope” is the primary innovation driving the conceptual (and possibly literal) development of the proposed “space elevator”. However, the wire rope retains pride-of-place in elevator history as the longest-serving suspension means. It is the subject of numerous 19th-century articles that questioned its safety, and has been featured in countless contemporary books, movies and TV programs that predicate disaster on its failure. Today, we look at the introduction of wire elevator ropes in the 19th century and its development into the 20th century.

The invention of wire rope more-or-less paralleled the invention of the passenger elevator, and, by the 1870s, wire rope had become the rope of choice for elevator use. Since they were new, both the elevator and wire rope faced similar challenges regarding safety concerns. The older hemp hoisting rope had a long history of use, and its strengths and weaknesses were well known. However, a rope made of wire was an entirely different matter. This difference was effectively summarized in the June 22, 1878, issue of American Architect and Building News, which included a brief article on elevator ropes. The article expressed the primary concern in its opening sentence:

“The sudden introduction in our large cities of elevators, most of which are hung by wire ropes, has led people to wonder what will happen when they have had a year’s wear, and why there should not, after a while, be a breaking of ropes, and consequent accidents all over the country.”

The key concern centered on the endurance of wire rope and its reaction to constant and repeated bending as it passed around winding drums and over sheaves. One of the aforementioned article’s key assumptions was that “everybody knows, at least, that reiterated bending weakens wire, whether it be by granulation or by the constant extension of its fibers.” The challenge was, in spite of “knowing” that this action occurred, there was no easy way to judge when a rope was no longer safe for use.

The ICS author also addressed rope replacement, noting that “particular attention must be given to the fastenings.” The chief recommendation was to “carefully reproduce the joint as it was originally made” by the elevator manufacturer. A typical shackle used by Otis Elevator is described below in figure 1.

Figure 1: “Otis Elevator Co. Shackle,” ICS Reference Library (1902).

It consists of a split rod, the two legs A, A of which are bulged out and provided with noses at the ends. A collar B straddles the legs and eventually abuts against the noses. The rope is brought through the collar, bent over a thimble C, and passed back again through the collar, after which the free end is fastened by wrapping with wire. The wrapped end of the sections that address elevator ropes serves as a reminder that different elevator systems required different types of rope:

Chapter 1: Standard Methods and Facilities for Testing Wire Ropes
Chapter 2: Materials Composing Wire Rope and Their Properties
Chapter 3: Standard Types of Wire Rope Construction
Chapter 4: Variety of Uses of Wire Rope
Chapter 5: Mechanical Theory of Wire Rope
Chapter 6: Practical Hints and Suggestions
Chapter 7: Instructions on Ordering Wire Rope
Chapter 8: Typical Applications of Wire Rope in Practice

“When ordering rope for elevators, state whether hoisting, counterweight, or hand or valve or safety rope is wanted, also whether right or left lay is desired. The ropes used for these purposes are different and are not interchangeable.”

The diversity of elevator ropes was reflected in the design of American Steel & Wire’s standard hoisting rope, which was produced in six grades or strengths: Iron, Mild Steel, Crucible Cast Steel, Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel, Plow Steel and Monitor Plow Steel. The company’s standard iron rope was primarily designed for use on drum machines and was “used for elevator hoisting where the strength is sufficient” (Figure 2). It was also described as “almost universally employed for counterweight ropes, except on traction elevators.” Their Mild Steel Elevator Hoisting Rope was designed “especially for traction elevators in tall buildings where, on account of [the] usual quick starting and stopping, a stronger and lighter rope is required.” Shipper or control ropes (also called tiller or hand ropes) differed from standard ropes in that they were composed of six strands of 42 wires each, which were wrapped around seven hemp cores (Figure 3).

wire rope figure 3 and 4

Figure 5: “Side Plunger Hydraulic Elevator,” American Wire Rope: Catalog & Handbook, American Steel & Wire (1913).

wire rope fig 5
Figure 5

In addition to providing detailed information on a wide variety of wire ropes, the catalog included schematic drawings that illustrated their proper application. These included 17 elevator-related drawings that depicted direct-, side- and horizontal-plunger hydraulic elevators; geared and traction electric elevators; and electric and belt-driven worm-geared elevators. The drawings’ emphasis on the application of wire ropes makes them a unique resource. Two versions of direct-plunger elevators were depicted — one with a shipper rope and one with an in-car controller — and the presence of two elevation drawings for each system permits a thorough understanding of these elevators (Figure 4). The same level of detail was provided for side-plunger hydraulic elevators (manufactured by Otis) and horizontal-plunger hydraulic systems (Figures 5 and 6).

Figure 6: “Horizontal Hydraulic Elevator,” American Wire Rope: Catalog & Handbook, American Steel & Wire (1913)

Figure 5
Figure 6

The electric elevator drawings are of particular interest, because, in 1913, they represented the newest systems on the market. The electric drum machine featured an interesting array of sheaves for the car and counterweight ropes, while the worm-gear machine employed a winding drum located near the midpoint of the shaft (Figures 7 and 8). The traction elevator drawing effectively illustrated its inherent simplicity and the potential of this new design (Figure 9).

The variety of elevator types illustrated in American Steel & Wire’s catalog represented the diversity of elevator systems prevalent in the early 20th century, as well as the importance of wire rope to their operation. Part Two of this article will follow this story through the 1930s, which encompasses the continued development of the traction elevator and the writing of the first elevator safety codes.

Figure 7: “Electric Drum Machine,” American Wire Rope: Catalog & Handbook, American Steel & Wire (1913).

Figure 7

Figure 8: “Worm Gear Electric Elevator,” American Wire Rope: Catalog & Handbook, American Steel & Wire (1913).

figure 8

Figure 9: “Traction Elevator,” American Wire Rope: Catalog & Handbook, American Steel & Wire (1913).

Figure 9

Original article can be found here at Elevator World Inc. 

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Hercules SLR is part of the Hercules Group of Companies which offers a unique portfolio of businesses nationally with locations from coast to coast. Our companies provide an extensive coverage of products and services that support the success of a wide range of business sectors across Canada including the energy, oil & gas, manufacturing, construction, aerospace, infrastructure, utilities, oil and gas, mining and marine industries.

Hercules Group of Companies is comprised of: Hercules SLRHercules Machining & Millwright ServicesSpartan Industrial MarineStellar Industrial Sales and Wire Rope Atlantic.

 

 

Lifting and Rigging Equipment: lifting with eye bolts

eye-bolt

Lifting and Rigging Equipment: select the right eye bolt

There’s a lot of hardware to consider when researching lifting and rigging equipment. Links, hooks, swivels—today we’re talking eye bolts. Eye bolts are used to attach a securing eye to a structure, so ropes or slings can be pulled through.

Keep reading to discover how to select and use the right type of bolt, their dimensions and Working Load Limits.

Eye bolts are marked with thread size, not with their rated capacities. Make sure you select the correct eye bolt based on type and capacity for the lift you are conducting.

  • Use plain or regular eye bolts (non-shoulder) or ring bolts for vertical loading only. Angle loading on non-shoulder bolts will bend or break them.
  • Use shoulder eye bolts for vertical or angle loading. Be aware that lifting eye bolts at an angle reduces the safe load.
  • Follow the manufacturer’s recommended method for angle loading.
lifting-equipment-incorrect-use-of-shoulder-bolt
Shoulder bolt, used incorrectly.
shoulder-eye-bolt-lifting-equipment
Shoulder eye bolt, with load applied correctly. 
Incorrect way to apply angle load.

Lifting and Rigging Equipment: using eye bolts safely

  • Orient the eye bolt in line with the slings. If the load is applied sideways, the eye bolt may bend.
  • Pack washers between the shoulder and the load surface to ensure that the eye bolt firmly contacts the surface. Ensure that the nut is properly torqued.
  • Engage at least 90% of threads in a receiving hole when using shims or washers.
  • Attach only one sling leg to each eye bolt.
safe-use-eye-bolt-lifting-equipment
Direction of pull

 

  • Inspect and clean the eye bolt threads and the hole.
  • Screw the eye bolt on all the way down and properly seat.
  • Ensure the tapped hole for a screw eye bolt (body bolts) has a minimum depth of 1 1/2 times the bolt diameter.
  • Install the shoulder at right angles to the axis of the hole. The shoulder should be in full contact with the surface of the object being lifted.
  • Use a spreader bar with regular (non-shoulder) eye bolts to keep the lift angle at 90° to the horizontal.
    • Use eye bolts at a horizontal angle greater than 45°. Sling strength at 45° is 71% of vertical sling capacity. Eye bolt strength at 45° horizontal angle drops down to 30% of vertical lifting capacity.
    • Use a swivel hoist ring for angled lifts. The swivel hoist ring will adjust to any sling angle by rotating around the bolt and the hoisting eye pivots 180°.

 

Lifting and Rigging Equipment: eye bolt techniques to avoid

improper-eye-bolt-use-lifting-equipment
Don’t run your sling through an eye bolt!
  • Do not run a sling through a pair of eye bolts: this reduces the effective angle of lift and puts more strain on the rigging.
  • Do not force the slings through eye bolts. This force may alter the load and the angle of loading.
  • Do not use eye bolts that have been ground, machined or stamped.
  • Do not use bars, grips or wrenches to tighten eye bolts.
  • Do not paint an eye bolt. The paint could cover up flaws.
  • Do not force hooks or other fittings into the eye; they must fit freely.
  • Do not shock load eye bolts.
  • Do not use a single eye bolt to lift a load that is free to rotate.
  • Do not use eye bolts that have worn threads or other flaws.
  • Do not insert the point of a hook in an eye bolt. Use a shackle.
  • Do not use non-shouldered bolts to lift horizontally—non-shouldered bolts should only be used to lift vertically.

 

Lifting and Rigging Equipment: eye bolt dimensions

 

Machinery Eye Bolt

lifting-and-rigging-equipment-machinery-eye-bolt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Screw Eye Bolt

lifting-rigging-equipment-screw-eye-bolt-dimensions

 

 

 

 

 

Regular Eye Bolt—Forged

lifting-and-rigging-equipment-regular-forged-eye-bolt

  • The Ultimate Load* is 5 times the WLL**. Maximum proof-load*** is 2 times the WLL.
Shoulder Eye Bolt—Forged

lifting-and-rigging-equipment-shoulder-eye-bolt-forged-dimensions

  • Ultimate Load is 5 times the WLL. Maximum proof-load is 2 times the WLL.
Definitions

* Ultimate Load: The load at which the item being tested fails or no longer supports the load.

** Working Load Limit: The maximum combined static and dynamic load in pounds or tonnes should be applied to the product in service, even when the product is new, and when the product is uniformly applied in direct tension to the product.

*** Maximum Proof-Load: The maximum tensile force that can be applied to a bolt without deformation. This is usually between 85-95% of the yield strength.

Need more definitions? Find common securing, rigging and lifting definitions on our ‘Quality and Safety‘ page.

Fact sheet via CCOHS: https://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/safety_haz/materials_handling/eye_bolts.html

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Hercules SLR is part of the Hercules Group of Companies which offers a unique portfolio of businesses nationally with locations from coast to coast. Our companies provide an extensive coverage of products and services that support the success of a wide range of business sectors across Canada including the energy, oil & gas, manufacturing, construction, aerospace, infrastructure, utilities, oil and gas, mining and marine industries.

Hercules Group of Companies is comprised of: Hercules SLRHercules Machining & Millwright ServicesSpartan Industrial MarineStellar Industrial Sales and Wire Rope Atlantic.