Which Rope Has the Greatest Tension?

wire rope rigging, Which Rope Has the Greatest Tension?

WHICH ROPE HAS THE GREATEST TENSION?

Which rope has the greatest tension? That’s a good question, with many answers that might surprise you. 

Rope tension can be a confusing concept for some to grasp (they’ve even studied why students have such a hard time grasping the concept of tension with a block and pulley)—we’re going to explain why ‘which rope has the greatest tension?’ isn’t necessarily the best question to ask.

Instead, we’re going to discuss how tension affects rope, and why different rope will demonstrate different tensions depending on the conditions. 

Rope tension is affected by a number of things. like the size/weight of the load, length of rope, diameter of the sheave, speed/velocity of the pull and any wear & tear the rope has been placed under. 

In this article, we’ll cover:

  • What’s rope tension, and why does it matter? 
  • Hoisting equipment selection
  • Tension fatigue—What is it? 
  • Tensile strength—What is it? 
  • Rope at Hercules SLR 

WHICH ROPE HAS THE GREATEST TENSION?

WHAT IS ROPE TENSION? 

Tension refers to what happens when a rope or cable is used to transmit a force. Put even simpler, rope is under tension when it’s attached to something. 

Consider what happens when a rope and hoist pulls a piece of building material. In this scenario, the rigger themselves isn’t in contact with the load, they’re not placing direct force on the load—The rope is. 

It’s a simple concept, with many ways to calculate, which all depend on different circumatances, like the weight the rope must lift and other factors that might impact tension. 

WHICH ROPE HAS THE GREATEST TENSION? 

There are many ways to discuss rope tension. Steel (iron combined with other mined materials) is considered to have one of the greatest tensile strengths. However, steel wire rope’s construction and fabrication can impact tensile strength, and its rated capacity.

This might seem a bit over-complicated, but it’s worth understanding how tension works, even if you’re not a physicist. Most mechanical applications use tension, which is calculated in newton’s. 

What’s a newton? A newton is the force you need to accelerate a 1-kilogram mass by 1-metre per second if no friction is present. However, this can change very quickly—that’s why for the sake of practicality, we won’t discuss what these calculations are, but how tension impacts a rigging operation. 

EQUIPMENT SELECTION & TENSION

Tension can help you understand rope’s breaking strength, as well. Breaking strength refers to the weakest point of the rigging (in this case, a rope) whether it be the webbing, end-fittings, or tensioning device.

A tensioning device is used to apply force at a particular point in the rigging to create tension. This is typically done to reduce hazards that would happen otherwise.  

TENSION FATIGUE

Tension fatigue happens to steel wire rope or synthetic rope when it’s subjected to different stress-levels (represented by the stress level exerted on the rope).

Basically, tension deteriorates with time and the older a rope is, the less accurate it’s original ratings become.

TENSILE STRENGTH

First of all—What’s tensile strength? Tensile strength (in this case) measures the force that would break the rope when under pressure. 

There are three kinds of tensile strength—They are:

1) Yield Strength

Yield strength refers to the highest amount of stress the rope can withstand without causing any deformations to the original rope dimension’s. 

2) Ultimate Strength

The ultimate tensile strength refers to the total amount of stress or force the rope can take.

3) Breaking Strength 

Breaking strength refers to a rope’s ability to withstand a lift, pull or move at a specific point. 

ROPE AT HERCULES SLR 

Although we didn’t necessarily tell you ‘which rope has the greatest tension’, we hope this helps you decide which rope to choose based on their tensile properties and what works best for the application, lift and load.

Hercules SLR carries rope for marine, safety, rescue, arborist applications and more—Drop us a line and we’ll pair you with the best rope for whatever application you have. 


RIG IT RIGHT

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INFO@HERCULESSLR.COM 1-877-461-4876


FOR RELATED READING,

VISIT OUR BLOG:

RIGGING TIPS: AVOID COMMON WIRE ROPE DAMAGE

STOP THE SNAP: PREVENT ROPE SNAPBACK

SAMSON K-100 HOIST LINE: THE FIRST SYNTHETIC CRANE ROPE


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Hercules SLR is part of the Hercules Group of Companies. We have a unique portfolio of businesses nationally, with locations coast-to-coast. Hercules Group of Companies provides extensive coverage of products and services that support a variety of sectors across Canada which includes the energy, oil & gas, manufacturing, construction, aerospace, infrastructure, utilities, mining and marine industries. 

Hercules Group of Companies is comprised of: Hercules SLRHercules Machining & Millwright ServicesSpartan Industrial MarineStellar Industrial Sales and Wire Rope Atlantic.

We have the ability to provide any hoisting solution your business or project will need. Call us today for more information. 1-877-461-4876 or email info@herculesslr.com

Engineer (by Default) Emily Warren Roebling

Brooklyn bridge engineer

Emily Warren Roebling (September 23, 1843 – February 28, 1903) is known for her contribution to the completion of the Brooklyn Bridge after her husband Washington Roebling developed caisson disease (a.k.a. decompression disease). Her husband was a civil engineer and the chief engineer during the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge.

Emily Roebling

Engineer (by Default) Emily Warren Roebling: Early Life

Emily was born to Sylvanus and Phebe Warren at Cold Spring, New York, on September 23, 1843. She was the second youngest of twelve children. Emily’s interest in pursuing education was supported by her older brother Gouverneur K. Warren. The two siblings always held a close relationship. She attended school at the Georgetown Visitation Academy in Washington DC.

In 1864, during the American Civil War, Emily visited her brother, who was commanding the Fifth Army Corps (a.k.a. V Corps), at his headquarters. At a solider’s ball that she attended during the visit, she became acquainted with Washington Roebling, the son of Brooklyn Bridge designer John A. Roebling, who was a civil engineer serving on Gouverneur Warren’s staff. Emily and Washington married in a dual wedding ceremony (alongside another Warren sibling) in Cold Spring on January 18, 1865.

As John Roebling was starting his preliminary work on the Brooklyn Bridge, the newlyweds went to Europe to study the use of caissons for the bridge. In November 1867, Emily gave birth to the couple’s only child, John A. Roebling II, while living in Germany.

Engineer (by Default) Emily Warren Roebling: Brooklyn Bridge

On their return from their European studies, Washington’s father died of tetanus following an accident at the bridge site, and Washington took charge of the Brooklyn Bridge’s construction as chief engineer.  As he immersed himself in the project, Washington developed decompression sickness, which was known at the time as “caisson disease”.  It affected him so badly that he became bed-ridden.

As the only person to visit her husband during his sickness, Emily was to relay information from Washington to his assistants and report the progress of work on the bridge. She developed an extensive knowledge of strength of materials, stress analysis, cable construction, and calculating catenary curves through Washington’s teachings. Emily’s knowledge was complemented by her prior interest in and study of the bridge’s construction upon her husband’s appointment to chief engineer. For the decade after Washington took to his sick bed, Emily’s dedication to the completion of the Brooklyn Bridge was unyielding. She took over much of the chief engineer duties, including day-to-day supervision and project management. Emily and her husband jointly planned the bridge’s continued construction. She dealt with politicians, competing engineers, and all those associated with the work on the bridge to the point where people believed she was behind the bridge’s design.

In 1882, Washington’s title of chief engineer was in jeopardy because of his sickness. In order to allow him to retain his title, Emily went to gatherings of engineers and politicians to defend her husband. To the Roeblings’ relief, the politicians responded well to Emily’s speeches, and Washington was permitted to remain chief engineer of the Brooklyn Bridge.

The Brooklyn Bridge was completed in 1883. In advance of the official opening, carrying a rooster as a sign of victory, Emily Roebling was the first to cross the bridge by carriage. At the opening ceremony, Emily was honored in a speech by Abram Stevens Hewitt, who said that the bridge was

…an everlasting monument to the sacrificing devotion of a woman and of her capacity for that higher education from which she has been too long disbarred.

Engineer (by Default) Emily Warren Roebling: Later Life

Upon completion of her work on the Brooklyn Bridge, Emily invested her time in several women’s causes including Committee on Statistics of the New Jersey Board of Lady Managers for the World’s Colombian Exposition, Committee of Sorosis, Daughters of the American Revolution, George Washington Memorial Association, and Evelyn College.  This occurred when the Roebling family moved to Trenton, New Jersey. Emily also participated in social organizations such as the Relief Society during the Spanish–American War. She traveled widely—in 1896 she was presented to Queen Victoria, and she was in Russia for the coronation of Tsar Nicholas II.  She also continued her education and received a law certificate from New York University.

Engineer (by Default) Emily Warren Roebling: Tributes

Roebling is also known for an influential essay she authored, “A Wife’s Disabilities,” which won wide acclaim and awards. In the essay, she argued for greater women’s rights and railed against discriminatory practices targeted at women. Until her death on February 28, 1903, she spent her remaining time with her family and kept socially and mentally active.


FOR MORE INFORMATION ON RIGGING,

CHECK OUT OUR BLOGS:

A BRIEF HISTORY OF ELEVATOR WIRE ROPE

WIRE ROPE: A MANUFACTURING AND TRANSPORTATION PIONEER

WOMEN IN INDUSTRY – INSPECTION TECHNICIAN HEATHER YOUNG


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Is a career in rigging right for you? Hercules SLR will lift you there.

Click here to learn more about career opportunities across Canada with Hercules SLR. 

Hercules SLR is part of the Hercules Group of Companies which offers a unique portfolio of businesses nationally with locations from coast to coast. Our companies provide an extensive coverage of products and services that support the success of a wide range of business sectors across Canada including the energy, oil & gas, manufacturing, construction, aerospace, infrastructure, utilities, oil and gas, mining and marine industries.

Hercules Group of Companies is comprised of: Hercules SLRHercules Machining & Millwright ServicesSpartan Industrial MarineStellar Industrial Sales and Wire Rope Atlantic.

Welcome to Hamilton, Ontario: Meet Jim Case, Rigger

rigger doing repair at hercules slr

RIGGING WITH OVER 15 YEARS’ EXPERIENCE: JIM CASE INTERVIEW

There’s so much experience to be found at Hercules SLR – today, we sit down with Associate Rigger Jim Case (he has over 15 years’ experience!) to discuss some cool projects he’s rigged, his path at Hercules SLR and some career tips for new workers starting out. 

Read on to learn more about Jim Case, and his job as a Rigger at Hercules SLR in Hamilton, Ontario. 

Tell us about your background as a Rigger, Jim: 

I started working in the rigging industry when I was 20 years old. I worked in a rope shop for 5 years and spliced rope. The company I worked for was bought, then switched hands a few times – I ended up making slings which, at the time, were more popular for us than rope. 

During my career, I’ve spliced a lot of wire rope for communication towers, steel mills, and have done a lot of work to drive belts. I’ve also had the chance to complete some projects for the US Military, specifically catapult ropes. And, I’ve done a bit of testing here in Hamilton, which is always fun! 

Nowadays, it’s easier to find a focus and not move around so much – workers will typically find their niche and grown within that. Examples of these niches could be circus rigging or offshore rigging.  

Now, I’m a rigger with Hercules SLR and fabricating synthetic slings – I enjoy work and keeping busy! 

Why did you decide to work in this industry?

Well, to be honest – I was 20 and needed a job! I put applications in, and I ended up really liking the industry. I’m doing the same job I was then, but now with Hercules SLR! 

I started working in the rigging industry in the late ’70’s – during the early 1980’s, many company owners were streamlining their business and selling off anything that wasn’t related to steel. This means I moved around a little bit! 

There’s a joke I always like to make – I’ve been bought and sold so many times, I don’t know if everyone or nobody wanted me! But, I’m very happy to have ended up with Hercules SLR. 

What’s something you’re most proud to have accomplished in your career at Hercules SLR?

Honestly, I’m proud of my attendance. I’m a loyal employee, and I never miss work.

Tell us about an exciting or cool project you’ve worked on during your time at Hercules SLR:

One of the coolest projects (that’s pretty notable too!) I worked on was preparing rope to temporarily open the roof of The O Stadium in Montreal, where they held the 1976 Olympics.

The O Stadium’s roof was originally intended to be retractable, but (infamously) a tower meant to support it wasn’t completed in time. This meant they needed a way to temporarily hold it open for the Olympic games, and I got to work on that project.

rigger, olympic stadium ropes, hercules slr
Aerial view of The O Stadium during the 1976 Olympics, with ropes installed by Jim

 For the O Stadium roof, we used gelded, 2inch rope and a special lubrication. This took us 2 weeks and we had a 12-guy crew! 

On a day-to-day basis, I really enjoy splicing rope. Even though it can be repetitive sometimes, it’s different everyday. Most of the orders take 1-2 hours to finish, so I can work on a few different types of projects throughout the day which is a nice variety. 

You’ve worked in the rigging industry for many years – tell us why it’s important to service your equipment and gear:

The main reason? Safety. Over the years, I’ve seen workers take a lot of shortcuts, which can lead to a lot of mistakes. Sometimes, workers can be resistant to change  – which is sometimes why they keep taking these shortcuts that might not be a safe procedure.

For example, I splice differently than some of the riggers in Brampton, but the end-product performs the same function. Some riggers stop splicing the rope on the left, right or vice versa. When you make things according to specified standards, you can sometimes take more liberties – like I said, as long as it performs.  

Tell us about a mistake you see made often in the industry:

The biggest mistake has got to be rigging equipment used improperly. When Hercules SLR receives a complaint that a product isn’t working like it’s supposed to, we have to see the equipment being used to remedy any issues they’re having.

In my personal experience, 90% of the time when this happens the equipment isn’t being used correctly – which is why it isn’t working correctly! 

What advice do you have for a new rigger, or someone just entering this industry?

A  big piece of advice I have for new workers in any industry really, is to plan your daily schedule at the beginning of your day – this makes it easier to deal with the flow of the day. 

For rigging, specifically, do the job right the first time! Earlier, you asked me about mistakes I see in the industry – rigging equipment passes through many different phases. It’s manufactured, used to lift various things and as I mentioned, is often used improperly. When rigging equipment fails, expensive loads can be damaged, companies can be shut down and people can be injured, or worse – killed. 

It’s important a rigger understands the consequences of cutting corners – and doesn’t do it. 

Any other helpful tips?

To select the right equipment for a lift, a big tip is to talk to someone who knows their stuff, and the end-user – whoever will be using the equipment. In a company, it can be helpful to talk to the sales team to learn more about this. 

For example, who will lift the rope? Do they have the capability to lift an 800-pound rope, or a 20-pound rope? They may want to select grommet-type or cradle-rope, which is usually smaller and more flexible. It’s important to make sure whoever’s at the end of the line can handle it. 

What’s something people might be surprised to learn about rigging?

Material and fabrication are surprising! People are astounded at the strength of nylon round slings! Sometimes, synthetic slings can be stronger and more flexible than other types of rope, like wire rope. For example, there used to be a rope made of Kevlar rope (this is what bulletproof vests are made of. FYI) that could float, but was heavier than steel – I haven’t seen it used recently, but it was used to pull huge barges. 

Finally, what do you like most about being a rigger at Hercules SLR? 

Our team. We have a great group of people here in Hamilton, Ontario. We’re like friends, but we actually get stuff done. 


Hercules SLR is part of the Hercules Group of Companies which offers a unique portfolio of businesses nationally with locations from coast to coast. Our companies provide an extensive coverage of products and services that support the success of a wide range of business sectors across Canada including the energy, oil & gas, manufacturing, construction, aerospace, infrastructure, utilities, oil and gas, mining and marine industries.

Hercules Group of Companies is comprised of: Hercules SLRHercules Machining & Millwright ServicesSpartan Industrial MarineStellar Industrial Sales and Wire Rope Atlantic.

We have the ability to provide any solution your business or project will need. Call us today for more information. 1-877-461-4876. Don’t forget to follow us on FacebookTwitter and LinkedIn for more news and upcoming events.

What should you do before you use a hoist?—Hercules How-To

what should you do before you use a hoist

HERCULES HOW-TO: WHAT SHOULD YOU DO BEFORE YOU USE A HOIST?

What should you do before you use a hoist? If you’re a rigger, or have worked in construction, you’ve likely used some sort of hoist before. Hoists are mechanical devices use to lift, pull and hoist, and are equipped with a pulley. They’ve also been around for awhile—historians haven’t been able to pinpoint exactly when the first hoist was used, but even Leonardo da Vinci had a hoist design.

Since then, hoist technology has come a long way – hoists are available in manual, electric, hydraulic and even universal styles. They’re used in a number of different industries. Today, we cover more about hoists used for securing, lifting and rigging applications and what exactly you should do before you use one. 

WHAT SHOULD YOU DO BEFORE YOU USE A HOIST? HAZARDS 

We talk a lot about hazards, how to avoid them and prevent them on a job site. There are a number of hazards that present themselves at work – both chemical and physical. When rigging with hoists, there are a number of hazards there.

Some of the most common hazards are: 

  • Falling equipment, materials, etc. 
  • Electrical issues 
  • Loading hoist beyond it’s WLL or SLL, known as overloading 

WHAT SHOULD YOU DO BEFORE YOU USE A HOIST? TRAINING

It’s important that anyone using the hoist, or operating rigging equipment in general, has proper training in hoist safety and operating procedures. Hoists are often used in rigging, and are commonly-known as a component for cranes. Hercules’ highly-skilled trainers teach a variety of courses that will prepare you to rig with hoists.

The Hercules Training Academy courses include: 

WHAT SHOULD YOU DO BEFORE YOU USE A HOIST? TYPES OF INSPECTION

According to the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers), there are thee main types of inspection that rigger’s (or any end-user of hoisting equipment) have to do. 

PREOPERATION INSPECTION

Before each shift, have a qualified person inspect hoisting equipment for:

  • Ensure mechanisms operate properly – check for unusual sounds, and make adjustments as needed 
  • Hoist limit device, for electric or air-powered hoists without a load on its hook: The load block should inch on limit device, or run at a slow speed when on multi-speed or variable-speed hoists. Using travel-limiting clutches as a limit device? Follow inspection methods detailed in the travel-limiting clutch’s manual. 
  • Hoist’s braking system
  • Check lines, valves and other parts of air system for leakage
  • Check hooks & latches; ensure hooks are in accordance with ASME B30.10
  • Check hoist rope for gross damage, and these features that could cause immediate hazards, including:
    • Rope distortion: kinking, crushing, unstranding, bird-caging, main strand displacement and/or core protrusion
    • General corrosion
    • Broken or cut strands 
    • Number, distribution and type of broken wires (if visible)
  • Check load chain for gross damage, and any of these conditions which can be hazardous for work. These are: 
    • Gouges, nicks, weld splatter, corrosion and/or distorted links. 
    • Test the hoist with the load in lifting and lowering directions, and watch the operation of the chain and sprockets. The chain should feed smoothly with the sprockets. 

FREQUENT INSPECTION

Frequent inspections should happen continually, during use and rest periods. During frequent inspections, a qualified person will determine if issues found are hazards and whether the hoist should be removed from service temporarily, inspected further and repaired, or removed from service permanently and replaced. 

During frequent inspections, inspect:

  • Operating mechanisms for proper orientation, adjustment and unusual sounds
  • Braking system
  • Lines, valve and other parts of air systems for leakage
  • Check hooks & latches; ensure hooks are in accordance with ASME B30.10
  • Hoist limit device, for electric or air-powered hoists without a load on its hook: The load block should inch on limit device, or run at a slow speed when on multi-speed or variable-speed hoists. Using travel-limiting clutches as a limit device? Follow inspection methods detailed in the travel-limiting clutch’s manual. 
  • Check hoist rope for gross damage, and these features that could cause immediate hazards, including:
    • Rope distortion: kinking, crushing, unstranding, bird-caging, main strand displacement and/or core protrusion
    • General corrosion
    • Broken/cut strands 
    • Number, distribution and the kind of visible broken wires 
  • Check load chain for gross damage, and any of these conditions which can be hazardous for work. These are:
    • Gouges, nicks, weld splatter, corrosion and distorted links 
    • Test the hoist with the load in lifting and lowering directions, and watch the operation of the chain and sprockets. The chain should feed smoothly with the sprockets. 
    • Check rope/load chain reeving and make sure it complies with the manufacturer recommendation. 

PERIOD INSPECTION 

Periodic inspections can be conducted wherever your hoist is set up, as they don’t require the rigger to disassemble the hoist. 

  • Open or remove covers and other items to inspect components. 
  • A qualified, competent person will determine if conditions found during inspection make a hazard, or whether disassembly is required.
  • Inspect the following for wear, corrosion, cracks and distortion:
    • Ensure fasteners aren’t loose, or on the verge of coming loose 
    • Load blocks
    • Suspension housings 
    • Hand chain wheels 
    • Chain attachments 
    • Clevises
    • Yokes 
    • Suspension bolts
    • Shafts
    • Gears
    • Bearings 
    • Pins
    • Rollers
    • Locking and clamping devices 

WHAT SHOULD YOU DO BEFORE YOU USE A HOIST? WHEN DO I INSPECT?

We’ve covered the three types of hoist inspection required in Canada, according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineering (ASME). This is when you should conduct each type of inspection.

1. PREOPERATION INSPECTION

A visual inspection should be conducted before each shift. This inspection does not have to be recorded, but a designated, competent person should inspect the hoisting equipment.

2. FREQUENT INSPECTION

Frequent inspections, like pre-operatation inspection, are visual and don’t need to be recorded but should be done by a designated, competent person. Just how often are ‘frequent’ inspections, you ask? 

A) Normal Service—Yearly

B) Heavy Service—Semiannually

C) Severe Service—Quarterly 

3. PERIOD INSPECTION

Visual, period inspections should be conducted by a competent person who makes records of external coded marks on the hoist. This is acceptable identification in lieu of records. Periodic inspections should be done: 

A) Normal Service—Yearly

B) Heavy Service—Semiannually

C) Severe Service—Quarterly 

Since this article is about what to do before using a hoist, we’re going to focus on what your preoperation – or, preuse inspection should include. 

  • The pre-use inspection should be performed during each shift before the hoist is used. 
  • A competent, qualified person will determine whether conditions found during inspection could create a hazard and, if a more detailed inspection is required. 
  • Inspect the following:
    • Operating mechanisms for proper operation, proper adjustment and unusual sounds.

WHAT SHOULD YOU DO BEFORE YOU USE A HOIST? HAND SIGNALS

what should you do before you use a hoist? hercules slr
Hoisting hand signals.

WHAT SHOULD YOU DO BEFORE YOU USE A HOIST? KNOW THE ROPES  

Before operating a hoist, it’s important to conduct an inspection before-hand. The inspection should consist of: 

Rope Type: Ensure you select the proper type of wire rope. The wire rope you select will depend on the hoist type and the features of the load you will lift. 

Are you familiar with the concept of rope stability before using that hoist? Hoists often use wire rope, which can kink, twist or become crushed if the wrong type or the wrong application is used. 

Drum crushing is a type of rope deterioration that can happen with multiple layers of wire rope on a drum. Whoever inspects the wire rope must evaluate the potential for wire rope crushing. Inspections should detect points where crushing is more likely to happen, and the level of deterioration and appropriate course of action (ex. repair or replacement) can be made. 

WHAT SHOULD YOU DO BEFORE YOU USE A HOIST? YOUR CHECKLIST

Before rigging or lifting with a hoist, know: 

  • The hoisting devices capacity
  • The WLL of: the rope, slings and hardware, and the rigging hardware’s weight

Here are some basic tips from CCOHS for inspecting your hoist: 

  • Pre-Lift: Make sure both hooks (upper and lower) swivel, replace worn chain or wire rope and tag it so it can be removed from service.
  • Post the SLL (safe load limit) in the hoist. 
  • Daily: Inspect hooks, rope, brakes and limit switches for wear and damage.
  • Ensure swivels move freely and there are no cracks or breaks in the hook. 
  • Conduct periodic inspections according to manufacturer rules or legislation. 


NEED A LIFT?  

Hercules SLR offers everything you need for your hoist, crane or lifting project. We offer equipment inspections, repairs, maintenance and hoists from reliable, respected and durablebrands like Crosby, CM and Bronze & Blue


FOR MORE INFORMATION ON OUR HOISTS & SERVICES,

CHECK OUT OUR BLOGS:

CROSBY QUIZ: CAN YOU PASS THIS HOOK INSPECTION QUIZ?

CM’S TIPS: CRANE & HOISTING IN HAZARDOUS AREAS

HERCULES SLR AT THE SABLE STRATEGIC WORKSHOP


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Need more information on rigging services? We’ll lift you there.

Click here to learn more about our rigging services at Hercules SLR. 

Hercules SLR is part of the Hercules Group of Companies which offers a unique portfolio of businesses nationally with locations from coast to coast. Our companies provide an extensive coverage of products and services that support the success of a wide range of business sectors across Canada including the energy, oil & gas, manufacturing, construction, aerospace, infrastructure, utilities, oil and gas, mining and marine industries.

Hercules Group of Companies is comprised of: Hercules SLRHercules Machining & Millwright ServicesSpartan Industrial MarineStellar Industrial Sales and Wire Rope Atlantic.

We have the ability to provide any solution your business or project will need. Call us today for more information. 1-877-461-4876 or email info@herculesslr.com. Don’t forget to follow us on FacebookTwitter and LinkedIn for more news and upcoming events.

Guest Blog: Crosby Talks Forged Wire Rope Clips VS. Malleable Cast Iron Clips

crosby wire rope clips at hercules slr

FORGED STEEL WIRE ROPE CLIPS VS. MALLEABLE CAST IRON CLIPS

What’s the difference between wire rope clips? Guest blogger Danny Bishop, Director of Training for Crosby stopped by Hercules SLR is here to share some information about the difference between malleable cast iron and forged U-Bolt clips.

Read on to discover his expert tips for rigging with U-Bolts. 

 

crosby rigging, hercules slr

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

U-Bolt style wire rope clips are one of the most commonly used accessories in the world of rigging. They can be found in many lifting and non-lifting applications.

Some common applications include winch lines, crane hoist lines, suspension cables, barrier cables, guy wires and many more applications. However, it is critical that the user know there are differences between a forged steel wire rope clip and a malleable cast iron clip.

The forged steel wire rope clip consists of a U-Bolt, two nuts and a forged steel base, which is sometimes called the saddle.

The malleable cast iron U-Bolt style wire rope clip consists of the same components as just mentioned except the clip base is NOT forged steel. In fact, it is a malleable cast iron, and that can make a big difference in the performance and reliability of the clip. The malleable cast iron base does not have the desirable material properties of steel, or the beneficial grain structure that a forged base provides. Although, malleable cast iron products have their place in industry, it is not the manufacturing process of choice for wire rope clip bases. This is especially true if the wire rope clip could be used in a critical application.

Notice that some standards do not allow the use of malleable cast iron clips in critical applications. One example would be ASME B30.5 which states that “Wire Rope Clips shall be drop-forged steel of single saddle (U-Bolt) or double saddle clip. Malleable cast iron clips shall not be used. “ASME B30.26 also states: “Saddles shall be forged steel.”

Additionally, shortcuts in the production process of the bases may also indicate there could be other shortcomings of the product. In some recent testing of malleable cast iron clips, it was found that U-Bolts fractured prior to achieving the recommended forged U-Bolt Clip torque, on 2/3 of the assemblies tested. (See picture of test mentioned).

Also consider:

  • Malleable Cast Iron Clip bases are significantly different from forged bases in size, shape and appearance. See figure 1 to compare a Crosby forged clip base and a Malleable Cast Iron clip, both for ½” wire rope. 
  • Malleable Cast Iron bases are inconsistent in strength, and can have hidden defects. 
  • Malleable Cast Iron clips should not be used for critical applications.
wire rope clips, hercules slr rigging services
Figure 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

crosby wire rope clips at hercules slr

 

 

 

 

 

 

Note the significant difference in size, shape and appearance even though both are 1/2″ diameter for wire rope. Also, the Crosby clip exceeds ASME B30.26 marking requirements. No readable markings were found on the malleable cast iron clip. 

HERCULES SLR: CROSBY BRAND


Hercules SLR is part of the Hercules Group of Companies which offers a unique portfolio of businesses nationally with locations from coast to coast. Our companies provide an extensive coverage of products and services that support the success of a wide range of business sectors across Canada including the energy, oil & gas, manufacturing, construction, aerospace, infrastructure, utilities, oil and gas, mining and marine industries.

Hercules Group of Companies is comprised of: Hercules SLRHercules Machining & Millwright ServicesSpartan Industrial MarineStellar Industrial Sales and Wire Rope Atlantic.

We have the ability to provide any solution your business or project will need. Call us today for more information. 1-877-461-4876. Don’t forget to follow us on FacebookTwitter and LinkedIn for more news and upcoming events.

Stop the Snap: Prevent Rope Snapback

rope snapback, rigging service, hercules slr

Dwayne Fader’s been with Hercules SLR for over 30 years and recently, he decided to ditch the dark Canadian Winter for summery, sunny Florida—before he flies away, we sit down with Dwayne to ask him a few questions about rope snapback. 

Rope snapback never fails to shock workers – it’s fast, forceful and damaging, yet preventable. Read on to learn more about the dangers of rope snapback, and discover our tips to prevent it. 

WHY DOES ROPE SNAPBACK?

When rope has too much tension applied to it and it breaks, it will snapback toward the direction of the pull because of kinetic energy—both wire and synthetic rope does this. Rope will always snapback, but you can’t always determine how fast it will snapback. It will always snapback to its pulling point, which is visible before or when you lift. This can cause terrible injuries, or even be fatal. 

The biggest thing you can do to prevent rope snapback is to inspect your rope before, during and after use. 

If you notice that there’s a lot of tension applied to the rope, you should re-rig the operation.  

rope snapback, rope, hercules slr, rigging ropeHOW-TO PREVENT ROPE SNAPBACK

How does one prevent rope snapback? Unfortunately, once the rope has broke there is nearly nothing you can do – except try to get out of its way.

Prevention is the main way to prevent injuries and fatalities caused by rope snap back. No matter the strength of a rope, it undergoes wear and tear like exposure to chemicals, harsh environments, friction and bends – this causes rope fibres to degrade over time. 

The best way to do this is with education and training for all workers—not just those who operate the rope. To keep rope in good working order, educate workers on:

  1. How to select the correct type of rope to use for the application/job; 
  2. Proper methods to handle the rope for application and beyond;
  3. When to remove the rope from service. 

To know when to remove your rope from service, you must conduct a rope inspection. To do this, inspect ropes before, during and after use. Training should also include inspection criteria for the ropes being used on the job, which can vary depending on the type of rope. This will help workers know what to look for, so they can tell if a rope should be taken out of service, or not. 

It should also cover the reality of what happens when a rope snaps back, areas where it’s most likely to snapback in a dangerous way (for example, sailboats typically have marked off “snapback zones” that indicate dangerous zones to stay away from) and an emergency plan of what to do when snapback occurs. 

ROPE MAINTENANCE TO PREVENT SNAPBACK 

SPLICING

Rope splicing is a method use to add a termination or join two ropes together without tying a knot.

Don’t tie a knot in rope, as knots reduce their safe-working load – splice rope instead to add terminations to a rope’s end. This also (typically) retains all of the rope’s strength or WLL. 

END-FOR-ENDING

End-for-ended rope is rope that’s rotated – the frequency depends on the rope and the application its used for. End-for-ending rope adds variety to the points of the rope where stress is regularly applied, which allows you to get more life from your rope. 

STORAGE

It may sound like common sense, but it’s important to store your rope properly. Improper storage could make your rope deteriorate and fail faster. 

ROPE SNAPBACK TRAINING

An effective method to make people aware of how wrong snapback can go is to educate them in the areas and methods discussed above – and to show how scary the reality is. 

Watch the video ‘Aircraft Carrier Cable Snap’ below for a frightening example of rope snapback. Note the crew near the back who are knocked to the ground by its force, also see the person who jumps it – TWICE: 

FINAL THOUGHTS

Remember – to prevent rope snapback, ensure you’re using the right kind of rope for the move or lift you’re planning. Be sure to train workers on proper use of rope, like rope splicing, end-for-ending and safety issues. 

 

References: Miles, A., & Prentice, G. (1986). Synthetic Line Snapback (pp. 1-9, Rep.). Naval Sea Systems Command., https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BuIbvX_B7sY, https://www.samsonrope.com/resources/rope-care, http://www.workingwaterfrontarchives.org/2015/01/29/rope-snap-back-and-parting-among-marine-safety-hazards/, https://www.ukpandi.com/knowledge-publications/article/best-practice-mooring-snap-back-zones-135637/, https://samsonrope.com/resources/rope-care 

Hercules SLR is part of the Hercules Group of Companies which offers a unique portfolio of businesses nationally with locations from coast to coast. Our companies provide an extensive coverage of products and services that support the success of a wide range of business sectors across Canada including the energy, oil & gas, manufacturing, construction, aerospace, infrastructure, utilities, oil and gas, mining and marine industries.

Hercules Group of Companies is comprised of: Hercules SLRHercules Machining & Millwright ServicesSpartan Industrial MarineStellar Industrial Sales and Wire Rope Atlantic.

We have the ability to provide any solution your business or project will need. Call us today for more information. 1-877-461-4876. Don’t forget to follow us on FacebookTwitter and LinkedIn for more news and upcoming events.

Bird-Caging, Never Saddle a Dead Horse and Singing: huh?

rigging terms, jargon by hercules slr

Rigging Slang

rigging-slang-terms-never-saddle-a-dead-horse
Spoiler alert—”never saddle a dead horse” has nothing to do with horseback riding!  

In the rigging and lifting industry, you’ll probably hear a lot of rigging slang thrown around – “don’t saddle a dead horse!”, bird-caging, cabling, diving, drum-crushing, end-for-ended, singing and more – but what do they all mean? Here’s a hint – saddling a dead horse has nothing to do with a rodeo!

In the rigging industry, equipment, hardware or the methods used to rig a load are known by different slang terms – it’s just as important to know these slang terms as it its to know the “proper” terms. Communication on a work site is essential to complete the job safely and efficiently, and using slang on the job is part of that.

Read on to find out common rigging slang terms used on the worksite and exactly what they mean.

Battening Down

Battening-down happens when a sling in a choke hitch is hit, which is done to force the slack, looped part of the sling in closer contact with the load. This is a dangerous practice and should not be done – allow slings to assume their natural angle.

Bird-Caging

Bird-caging happens when wire rope becomes twisted, or when it’s released suddenly from an load. It’s called this as it resembles – you guess it, a bird cage. Essentially, the wire rope strands become untwisted (often due to mis-use or abuse) from the core, and puff-out forming a ‘cage’.

Wire rope with multiple strands can bird-cage due to torsional vibration (the angular vibration of an object, often a shaft along its axis of rotation), sudden release of tension or being forced through a sheave. 

Come-Along

Another name for a pulley or beam-trolley.

Clevis

Another term for a shackle – ‘clevis’ is a term that was used by the agricultural industry and was typically used to describe a shackle used with machinery operated by farm animals.

Diving

Refers to the wire rope’s drum, when it becomes displaced from the way it lays in the spool.

Drum-Crushing

Drum-crushing happens when wire rope is winded too loosely on the drum, and is then pulled from strands underneath and is crushed, which alters the shape.

End-for-ended

End-for-ended rope is rope that’s been spliced using a specific technique where rope tails are tucked into each side.

Saddle a dead horse

To “saddle a dead horse” means to place u-bolts in the wrong spot. The cable has two parts – it’s end (called a dead-end) and the part that is attached to the load. The cable that attaches to the load should be on the bottom. Therefore, you shouldn’t add u-bolts to the ‘dead-end’ of the cable – add them to the end attached to the load, or you are ‘saddling a dead horse’.

Wire rope “singing”

When wire rope needs lubrication, it will make a high-pitched noise, which resembles a high-note being sung.


Hercules SLR is part of the Hercules Group of Companies which offers a unique portfolio of businesses nationally with locations from coast to coast. Our companies provide an extensive coverage of products and services that support the success of a wide range of business sectors across Canada including the energy, oil & gas, manufacturing, construction, aerospace, infrastructure, utilities, oil and gas, mining and marine industries.

Hercules Group of Companies is comprised of: Hercules SLRHercules Machining & Millwright ServicesSpartan Industrial MarineStellar Industrial Sales and Wire Rope Atlantic.

We have the ability to provide any solution your business or project will need. Call us today for more information. 1-877-461-4876. Don’t forget to follow us on Twitter, LinkedIn and Facebook for more news and upcoming events.

Important: Preventative Equipment Maintenance

Preventative Maintenance

Underestimating the importance of equipment maintenance could be taking a toll on your bottom line. The saying “if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it” is too often the way some view equipment maintenance. Why pay for service on your equipment if there’s nothing wrong with it? Believe it or not, there are several reasons. All equipment is an investment — one that requires time and money to keep in optimal shape.

BENEFITS OF MAINTENANCE

Preventative equipment maintenance is key to extending equipment life and ultimately saving you time and money. While your perception may be that paying for preventative maintenance is unnecessary spending, the reality is that without it, you’re often left with more expensive repairs. At Hercules SLR we believe in the importance of preventative maintenance, here are just some of the reasons why:

KEEP EQUIPMENT RUNNING EFFICIENTLY

When equipment runs efficiently, work get done on schedule, keeping that optimal condition is key to maintaining that level of equipment efficiency. If maintenance is overlooked, efficiency suffers and ultimately, your bottom line suffers as a result.

SMALL PROBLEMS BECOME BIGGER PROBLEMS OVER TIME

We’ve all seen it; something isn’t working exactly the way it used to, but it isn’t affecting the job, so we continue, sometimes even adjusting how we use the piece of equipment to keep things moving. While it may seem like this is the most efficient way to get the job done in the short term, it could cause you major problems long-term.

THE BIGGER THE PROBLEM, THE MORE THE EXPENSE

While it may seem like it makes no sense to spend the time and money to have your equipment inspected or repaired when you’re able to work around it, the reality is that waiting, is going to cost you even more. Bigger, more complex repairs come with a bigger price tag. Think of more than parts? yes, a more complex problem will likely come with having to replace more and/or larger parts that are expensive, but it doesn’t end there.

Larger problems often translate to more downtime, the more downtime means you’re suddenly behind schedule and/or unable to take on a new project. Employees scheduled to use that equipment need paying, so now you are paying for work that cannot be done during the downtime.

Don’t wait for the bigger problem — invest in the small one.

REDUCE INJURIES AND FATALITIES

Within the construction industry, 17% of fatal construction accidents are due to contact with objects and equipment. If your equipment isn’t being serviced on a regular basis, there’s a chance it isn’t working properly. If it isn’t working properly, you’re increasing your chances of workplace injury or death because of equipment failure.

Regardless of how much safety training you or your employees have been through, they don’t have control over equipment failure. Of course, there will always be unexpected breakdowns, but you can minimize them through being proactive about your equipment maintenance.

Workplace injuries and fatalities are tragic and expensive. Company morale suffers, and so does your bottom line. One of the benefits of maintenance doubles as a proactive step in reducing the number of injuries or fatalities you have on site. You can’t put a price on your team’s safety in the field.

cert-track-en

Service records and documentation answer many of these questions and put many of the concerns of the unknown to rest. At Hercules SLR all our customers have access to CertTracker®, our FREE online equipment management system.

CertTracker® delivers innovative solutions that streamline any inspection and maintenance process. Mobile computing, Radio Frequency (RFID) tagging and internet applications provide you with enhanced accuracy and operational efficiency. Not to mention eliminating most of the paperwork.

CertTracker Cycle

The CertTracker Advantage

 TRAIN OPERATORS AND TECHNICIANS

In conjunction with technology, there is no substitution for the human touch. It takes a trained operator to understand the problem and a trained technician to know how to fix it or to alert someone that it needs repairing. Educating your equipment operators and any technicians you have on staff is key to extending the life of your equipment, as they will be sure that small problems don’t turn in to big ones.

If training isn’t feasible, there needs to be a summary of best practices and an operation manual in place so you can ensure operators are using the equipment the way it was meant to be used. Always respect all weight limits and guidelines. An untrained equipment operator could unintentionally cause costly repairs, so make sure the best practices and expectations are outlined clearly and regularly.

SET AND STICK TO A MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE

Every piece of equipment is different. They all have their own intricacies and need a maintenance and repair schedule to match. Rather than waiting for parts to cause a problem, replace them when they are scheduled to be replaced.

How do you know when that is? The piece of equipment will have an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) maintenance recommendation. Commit to it. It may seem like by being proactive you’re attempting to fix something that isn’t broken, but trust us, neglecting to do this will result in expensive repairs.

CONDUCT REGULAR INSPECTIONS

No, inspections are not the same thing as maintenance schedules. equipment should be inspected every time it’s used. Trained operators should know what to look and listen for to ensure equipment is working properly. Checking for simple things, like signs of wear on equipment, can go a long way. The reality is equipment is often used with vibration, high temperatures and friction? all of which contribute to the wear and tear. Add age to the mix, and you have a recipe for deterioration.

This happens with all equipment, and the key to extending equipment life is to make sure you do something as simple as adding an operator visual inspection to your equipment use requirements. Noticing slight wear and tear may seem small, but these things can be identified through a visual inspection and fixed before they cause a larger problem.

HOW QUALIFIED ARE THE TECHNICIANS INSPECTING YOUR GEAR?

When it comes to inspections, testing, repairs and certification, you need to know that you and your equipment are in safe and experienced hands.

The Lifting Equipment Engineers Association (LEEA) is established across the globe as the leading representative body for all those involved in the lifting industry worldwide. They provide third party training and examination for technicians in the lifting equipment industry.

At Hercules our inspectors have undergone this internationally recognized training and some hold multiple diplomas.

OUR TECHNICIANS ARE:

  • Familiar with the most recent technology in the lifting industry
  • Skilled and confident in their inspection skills
  • Constantly learning and expanding their knowledge
  • LEEA Registered Technicians

LEEA Header

For all your maintenance requirements, let our experts help. If you need to book your equipment in for service or have any concerns, questions or call us Toll Free on:  1-877-461-4876.

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Hercules SLR is part of the Hercules Group of Companies which offers a unique portfolio of businesses nationally with locations from coast to coast. Our companies provide an extensive coverage of products and services that support the success of a wide range of business sectors across Canada including the energy, oil & gas, manufacturing, construction, aerospace, infrastructure, utilities, oil and gas, mining and marine industries.

Hercules Group of Companies is comprised of: Hercules SLRHercules Machining & Millwright ServicesSpartan Industrial MarineStellar Industrial Sales and Wire Rope Atlantic.

 

 

 

 

Rigging Tips: avoid common wire rope damage

common-wire-rope-damage-wire-rope-slings

Wire rope has many applications—today the focus is on Wire Rope slings. Read on for tips from our Brampton rigging experts to inspect your wire rope sling and prevent common wire rope damage, so your wire rope slings have a long life.

Wire Rope: basic components

A piece of wire rope has three main components. Individual wires that make up each strand, the strand itself and finally, the core it’s built around. (See figure 1). The core is typically composed of fibre core (FC) or steel wire core, called independent wire rope core (IWRC). The steel core increases strength by 7% and the weight by 10%, which provides more support to the outer strands than fibre cores. Steel cores resist crushing and are more resistant to heat.

The design factor of wire rope tells you the ratio between minimum breaking load of the rope and the working load limit (WLL).

Figure 1

Wire Rope Lay Patterns

wire-rope-lay-patterns
(L-R) Right Lay/Ordinary Lay, Left Lay/Ordinary Lay, Right Lay/Lang’s Lay, Right Lay/Reverse Lay (Cross Lay)

 

 

 

 

 

Wire Rope Sling Inspection: what to look for

It’s important to inspect your wire rope sling before use to prevent common wire rope damage—but also for safety. Wire rope slings don’t normally pass around a pulley, therefore it’s important to look out for wear from the environment, like:

  • Abrasive dust, little to no lubricant
  • Normal wear-and-tear
  • Corrosion (look for discolouration, lack of flexibility and rough to-the-touch feel)
  • Abrasion
  • Thermal damage (over-heating)
  • Termination failures

When inspecting the wire rope itself, look for wear at the crown, the core strands and inter-strand wear. Check for kinked, damaged or broken wires. This kind of damage is often caused by slinging a previous load incorrectly—if excessive wear is present, it may be best to look at how wire rope slings are used on the worksite. Keep reading for tips to avoid common wire rope damage and wear and tear on slings.

Wire Rope Sling Don’ts:

  • Don’t join slings by threading eyes;
  • Don’t pull loops in your sling or use a knotted/kinked sling;
  • Don’t tie knots in sling legs to reduce length;
  • Don’t overload the sling;
  • Don’t pull from under a load;
  • Don’t life a container with only two slings;
  • Don’t place slings near welding/cutting operations;
  • Don’t force the eye to open more than 20° (this places undue tension on the ferrule;
  • Don’t stand under a load;
  • Don’t land the load directly on the sling;
  • Don’t wrap a wire rope around a hook—this kinks the wire and ruins the sling.

Wire Rope Sling Do’s:

  • Always use a shackle with at least the same SWL to join slings together;
  • Use suitable storage/packaging;
  • Minimum radius sling can be bent is 3 times diameter of sling wire rope.

Most damage to wire rope slings is caused by unnecessary chaffing against the load, ground or nearby objects. Avoid abrasion and don’t place your sling in contact with adjacent structures, don’t drag your wire rope sling from under a load, and avoid double-choke hitching to prevent common wire rope damage.

Wire rope sling corrosion is a major cause of deterioration, and is caused by poor storage, exposure to weather and corrosive chemicals. Thermal damage happens when the operating temperature is too high, electric arching was used during welding or if the sling was exposed to lightening. External wear can typically be seen from the outside, however, it’s more difficult to asses internal damage—the rope must be opened up. See figures 2 and 3 for examples of internal wire rope corrosion.

Internal wear is most affected by pressure and friction. Factors that affect internal wear include:

  • Level of rope tension
  • Bending ratio
  • Bending frequency
  • Lack of lubricant
  • Tension fatigue (affected by degree of tension)
wire-rope-slings-rigging-equipment
Figure 2
wire-rope-slings-rigging-equipment
Figure 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wire Rope termination: what to look for

  • Wire breaks
  • Corrosion
  • Reduction in rope diameter
  • Unusual rope movement
  • Evidence of rope end
  • Evidence of any incorrect fitting
  • Evidence of any component wear

Avoid Common Wire Rope Damage: battening down

When a rigger strikes the eye of a sling in a choke hitch to force the bright closer to the load in an attempt to ‘make it more secure’—this is known as battening down (not to be confused with a batten from theatre rigging), and is actually very dangerous. The bight should always assume its natural angle, which is usually about 120°.

wire-rope-slings-rigging-equipment
Battening down: dangerous!

Practice inspections and know what to look for, avoid battening down, avoid exposing your wire rope sling to abrasive forces and chemicals, and you can avoid common wire rope sling damage.

Want more wire rope? Check out our pages on types of wire rope construction and wire rope grades.

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Hercules SLR is part of the Hercules Group of Companies which offers a unique portfolio of businesses nationally with locations from coast to coast. Our companies provide an extensive coverage of products and services that support the success of a wide range of business sectors across Canada including the energy, oil & gas, manufacturing, construction, aerospace, infrastructure, utilities, oil and gas, mining and marine industries.

Hercules Group of Companies is comprised of: Hercules SLRHercules Machining & Millwright ServicesSpartan Industrial MarineStellar Industrial Sales and Wire Rope Atlantic.

Steel Cable: market growth driven by automotive industry

steel-cable-wire-rope-filaments

The steel cable or wire rope market expects to grow at a CAGR (compound annual growth rate) of 4.2% in the coming period heading into 2023, reports PR Newswire.

Wire rope or steel cable provides strength, flexibility and has many applications. Steel cable is used in elevators, rigging and lifting applications, theatre sets, and is used as a reinforcing material for automotive tires and conveyor belts.

Filaments, which are fine strands of steel are significantly useful for the fabrication of automotive tires. Advantages of wire rope or steel cable filaments include high thermal resistance a better travelling performance. Currently, the global wire rope market is being greatly influenced by market entrants in the automotive industry.

steel-cable-wire-rope
Example of fraying wire rope—notice the individual strands that make up each rope.

Right now, technology and a need for lighter tires are two growing demands in the automotive industry. Flat-run tires, eco tires and nitrogen tires are three examples of tech-driven tires that create a demand for a flashier, updated tires for manufacturers. Their industry has a need for lighter tires, which means steel cable will be a sought-after material for automotive fabrication. These steel cable filaments will be used in application for heavy equipment tires, cargo truck tires, conveyor belts, rubber framework and light truck tires.

As the famed architect Walter Grophius said, “New synthetic substances—steel, concrete, glass—are actively superseding the traditional raw materials of construction.” Even in modern days, fabrication and manufacturing industries are constantly finding news ways to use to use familiar, synthetic materials.

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Hercules SLR is part of the Hercules Group of Companies which offers a unique portfolio of businesses nationally with locations from coast to coast. Our companies provide an extensive coverage of products and services that support the success of a wide range of business sectors across Canada including the energy, oil & gas, manufacturing, construction, aerospace, infrastructure, utilities, oil and gas, mining and marine industries.

Hercules Group of Companies is comprised of: Hercules SLRHercules Machining & Millwright ServicesSpartan Industrial MarineStellar Industrial Sales and Wire Rope Atlantic.