Tips from our Brampton, ON Experts: safe rigging practices

safe-rigging-practices-hercules-slr

Safe rigging practices are essential to get the job done and get home in one piece. Today, we spoke to our rigging experts from our Brampton, Ontario branch—some of their clients include IMAX, Siemens, GM and Bombardier. Read on to learn more about safe rigging practices to use when rigging with wire rope slings.

What is safe rigging—or even rigging in general?

Rigging, or safe rigging is simply the movement of a mass using mechanical application, like slings and/or lifting equipment. The term ‘rigging’ also includes figuring out what lifting appliances and slings should be used and fitted to control the load (never vice versa!), and where the load should be moved to.

Safe Rigging Practices: 4 steps
  1. Identify the load and find out its weight;
  2. Find best sling for the load and select lifting gear;
  3. Ensure the route your load will travel is clear and there are no hazards present;
  4. Prepare the area where you load will land, make sure there are no obstructions.

Safe Rigging Practices: lifting with wire rope slings

Okay, so you’ve decided wire rope slings are the best sling to lift your load—but wait! Before lifting with wire rope slings, determine these 3 things:

  1. Know or determine the weight of the load;
  2. Decide the sling arrangement—consider load control, type and means of attachment;
  3. Sling length—consider available headroom, leg angle.

When executing your lift with a wire rope sling, be sure to protect the load and sling from damage at sharp corners—padding the corners is recommended. Be sure to block as needed, examine your sling before each lift and use safe operating practices. This will also help prevent common wire rope sling damage.

While operating, make sure the following happens:

  • Sling is centered in bowl of hook;
  • Each leg supports part of the load so it’s under control;
  • Sling(s) are long enough that rated load angle is accurate;
  • If using multiple slings for different, specific angles, don’t load each leg with more than is permitted;
  • Stay alert for potential snags;
  • Balance basket hitches in choker hitches to prevent slip;
  • The load doesn’t exceed the rated load of sling or components and load is within rated load of sling (avoid shock-loading);
  • Stay clear of rigging equipment and especially a suspended load;
  • The load won’t collapse or change shape/form when in contact with bumps or jerk-movements;
  • After use, inspect and properly store the sling.

Multi-Leg Wire Rope Slings

If the load needs a multi-leg sling, do not exceed the SWL stamped on the ring—the SWL (safe working load) will always be slated for sling legs at 90°.

40° angle
wire-rope-sling-multi-leg
30° angle
wire-rope-multi-leg-angles
90° angle (max angle)

 

 

 

 

Safe Rigging Practices: slinging tubulars with wire rope slings

Tubular items include scaffold tubes, drilling tubulars, construction pipe work and other items like these. When rigging tubulars in a sling, consider the following:

  • Only tubulars  of the same diameter should be placed together;
  • The amount of tubes should be placed so middle tubes are gripped and won’t slip out of the bundle;
  • Tubulars should always be slug with two slings, each with a SWL at least equal to the gross weight of the load;
  • Slings should be placed at an equal distance apart—around 25% from the loads’ end. Place sling legs  1/4 of the tube length from the ends of tubes;
  • Use clamps or bulldog clips on the reeved wire to prevent loosening. Use a tie wrap on the sling’s reeved eye to prevent the sling from slipping over the bulldog;
  • Attach a tag line to one sling when rigging excessively long, tubular bundles.

Remember—it’s dangerous to bundle tube with steel angle, channels, etc. Small bore tube may lay loose in the gaps between differently shaped items of steel and could slide out when lifted. At height with the right amount of force, a tube can become a spear and result in fatal injuries.

Safe Rigging Practices: single-leg vertical hitch

Keep these tips in mind when using a single-leg vertical hitch:

  • The total weight of the load is supported by a single leg;
  • The SWL of the wire rope sling must exceed the load weight;
  • Don’t use your hitch to lift loose materials, long loads (unless using a spreader beam with 2 single-legs—see below) or a load that can tip;
  • Single-leg hitch won’t provide you with good control and is prone to tip.
Single-Leg Vertical Hitch: Spreader Beams

safe-rigging-practices-hercules-slr-spreader-beam-wire-rope

Hercules SLR spreader beam. Use a certified spreader beam for good control to support loads that are long and/or hard-to-handle. They reduce the tendency for the load to slip or bend, and both single legs will support the load—if the load is evenly balanced, each side will carry half the load.

Safe Rigging Practices: double-up

Double Basket
  • Make sure two hitches are placed carefully to ensure load is balanced;
  • Ensure legs are kept apart enough to balance the load (don’t cause slippage);
  • Never use a vertical angle bigger than 60°;
  • Double basket hitches don’t have great load control, the capacity depends on the vertical angle formed in the basket.
Double Wrap Basket

A double wrap basket is a basket hitch that’s wrapped around the load. When using this method with wire rope slings, keep in mind:

  • A single hitch doesn’t control load slippage;
  • Adjust legs as load is applied, equalize load balance;
  • Great for loose material handling and smooth loads due to it’s 360° wrap;
  • For good load control, use two hitches when at a horizontal angle of 45° or smaller (depending on load weight).
Double Wrap Choker

A double wrap choker hitch is a choker hitch wrapped around the load—a single hitch won’t control load

safe-rigging-practices-wire-rope-sling
Load on offshore rig lifted by chain slings.

slippage. These are great for handling loose materials as it has a 360° wrap that can be achieved without battening down the eye—gain control by using two hitches at a horizontal angle of 45° or smaller.

Safe Rigging Practices: stabilizing & landing the load

Before you begin lifting your load, you should have a plan and prepared space for the load to land. The type of load will determine how riggers prepare but typically, most loads should be lowered onto timber battens. Slings will be easy to withdraw from the load, but remember—never land a load directly on the sling.

A good rigger will always asses unusual loads and try to estimate their centre of gravity in order to stabilize it. It’s important to attach slings so the centre of gravity is below or within the lift points. If you doubt the load’s stability at all, lift it very slowly. If it tilts, lower it (slowly) and re-sling the load so it’s stable. 

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Hercules SLR is part of the Hercules Group of Companies which offers a unique portfolio of businesses nationally with locations from coast to coast. Our companies provide an extensive coverage of products and services that support the success of a wide range of business sectors across Canada including the energy, oil & gas, manufacturing, construction, aerospace, infrastructure, utilities, oil and gas, mining and marine industries.

Hercules Group of Companies is comprised of: Hercules SLRHercules Machining & Millwright ServicesSpartan Industrial MarineStellar Industrial Sales and Wire Rope Atlantic.

Rigging Hardware We Love: Crosby® 4-50 clip applications

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Rigging hardware is essential to our daily jobs—today, the spotlight is on the G-450 (Red-U-Bolt®) and SS-450 (316 Stainless Steel) Crosby clips. Read on to discover application tips and specifications for the 450 Crosby clips.

Efficiency Ratings

Efficiency ratings for wire rope end terminations are based upon the minimum breaking force of wire rope. The efficiency rating of a properly prepared loop or thimble-eye termination for clip sizes 1/8” through 7/8” is 80%, and for sizes 1” through 3-1/2” is 90%.

Number of Clips

The number of clips shown (see Table 1) is based upon using RRL or RLL wire rope, 6 x 19 or 6 x 36 Class, FC or IWRC; IPS or XIP, XXIP. If Seale construction or similar large outer wire type construction in the 6 x 19 Class is to be used for sizes 1 inch and larger, add one additional clip. If a pulley (sheave) is used for turning back the wire rope, add one additional clip.

The number of clips shown also applies to rotation-resistant RRL wire rope, 8 x 19 Class, IPS, XIP, XXIP sizes 1-1/2 inch and smaller; and to rotation-resistant RRL wire rope, 19 x 7 Class, IPS, XIP, XXIP sizes 1-3/4 inch and smaller. For other classes of wire rope not mentioned above, we recommend contacting Crosby Engineering to ensure the desired efficiency rating.

Elevator Application

For elevator, personnel hoist, and scaffold applications, refer to ANSI A17.1 and ANSI A10.4. These standards do not recommend U-Bolt style wire rope clip terminations. The style wire rope termination used for any application is the obligation of the user.

Applications: Crosby Clips

Refer to table 1 to follow instructions below:

crosby-ubolt-applications-specs

1. Turn back specified amount of rope from thimble or loop. Apply first clip one base width from dead end of rope. Apply U-Bolt over dead end of wire rope—live end rests in saddle (Never saddle a dead horse!). Use torque wrench to tighten nuts evenly, alternate from one nut to the other until reaching the recommended torque. (See Figure 1) wire-rope-crosby-clip-applications2. When two Crosby clips are required, apply the second clip as near the loop or thimble as possible. Use torque wrench to tighten nuts evenly, alternating until reaching the recommended torque. When more than two clips are required, apply the second clip as near the loop or thimble as possible, turn nuts on second clip firmly, but do not tighten. (See Figure 2) wire-rope-crosby-clip-applications

3. When three or more Crosby clips are required, space additional clips equally between first two – take up rope slack – use torque wrench to tighten nuts on each U-Bolt evenly, alternating from one nut to the other until reaching recommended torque. (See Figure 3)

wire-rope-crosby-clip-applications4. If a pulley (sheave) is used in place of a thimble, add one additional clip. Crosby clip spacing should be as shown. (See Figure 4)

5. Wire Rope Splicing Procedures: The preferred method of splicing two wire ropes together is to use inter-locking turnback eyes with thimbles, with the recommended number of Crosby clips on each eye (See Figure 5). An alternate method is to use twice the number of clips as used for a turnback termination. The rope ends are placed parallel to each other, overlapping by twice the turnback amount shown in the application instructions. The minimum number of clips should be installed on each dead end (See Figure 6). Spacing, installation torque, and other instructions still apply.

wire-rope-splice-crosby-clip-application6. Important: Apply first load to test the assembly. This load should be of equal or greater weight than loads expected in use. Next, check and use torque wrench to retighten nuts to recommended torque. In accordance with good rigging and maintenance practices, the wire rope end termination should be inspected periodically for wear, abuse, and general adequacy.

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Hercules SLR is part of the Hercules Group of Companies which offers a unique portfolio of businesses nationally with locations from coast to coast. Our companies provide an extensive coverage of products and services that support the success of a wide range of business sectors across Canada including the energy, oil & gas, manufacturing, construction, aerospace, infrastructure, utilities, oil and gas, mining and marine industries.

Hercules Group of Companies is comprised of: Hercules SLRHercules Machining & Millwright ServicesSpartan Industrial MarineStellar Industrial Sales and Wire Rope Atlantic.

Wire Rope Slings – Care and Maintenance

Wire-Rope-Sling

Terry Young, president of Construction Safety Experts, in the US, discusses identification, inspection and removal criteria for wire rope slings. The ASMEB30.9-2006 Standard requires wire rope slings to show the name or trademark of the manufacturer, diameter or size, number of legs, if more than one, and the rated loads for the types of hitches used and the angle upon which it is based.

The initial identification is done by the manufacturer and should be maintained by the user so as to be legible during the life of the sling. Replacement of wire rope slings identification should be considered as a repair and is required to be performed by the manufacturer or a qualified person. It must be marked to identify the repairing agency.

Wire rope sling 2

Additional proof testing is not required when replacing sling identification. An initial inspection should be performed prior to using new, altered, modified or repaired wire rope slings. It should be conducted by a designated person to verify compliance with applicable ASME 30.9-2006 standards.

A frequent visual inspection for damage must be performed by the user or designated person each day or shift the sling is used. The best safety practice is to inspect the wire rope before each use, task or lift.

Any condition meeting the ASME 30.9 – 2006 removal criteria or other condition that may result in a hazard must result in the sling being removed from service. The sling should then not be returned to service until approved by a qualified person. Written records are not required for frequent inspections.

A periodic inspection is to be conducted at intervals, not exceeding one year. This requires a complete inspection for damage to the sling by a designated person. The inspection should be conducted on the entire length, including splices, end attachments and fittings.

The frequency of periodic inspections should be based on frequency of use, severity of service conditions, nature of lifts being made and experience gained from the service life of slings used in similar circumstances or conditions.

Guidelines for the time intervals are

  • Normal service – yearly
  • Severe service – monthly to quarterly
  • Special service – as recommended by a qualified person or manufacturer
  • A written record shall be made and maintained of the most recent periodic inspection

Removal criteria

A wire rope sling shall be removed from service if conditions such as the following are present.

  • Missing or illegible sling identification
  • Broken wires
  • For strand- laid and single-part slings, 10 randomly broken wires in one rope lay, or five broken wires in one strand in one lay.
  • For cable-laid slings, 20 broken wires per lay.
  • For six- part braided slings 20 broken wires per braid.
  • For eight-part braided slings 40 broken wires per braid.
  • Severe localized abrasion or scraping
  • Kinking, crushing, birdcaging or any other damage resulting in damage to the rope structure
  • Evidence of heat damage
  • End attachments that are cracked, deformed or worn to the extent that the strength of the sling is substantially affected
  • Severe corrosion of the rope, end attachments or fittings.
  • Other conditions including visible damage that may cause doubt to the continued use of the sling

Hook removal criteria is listed in the ASME B30.10 Standard. Rigging hardware removal criteria is listed in the ASME B30.26 Standard.

Read original article here at International Cranes and Specialized Transport

For all your rigging repairs, inspections and services, call Hercules! Our inspectors are trained to the highest standard and are LEEA registered.

Hercules SLR is part of the Hercules Group of Companies which offers a unique portfolio of businesses nationally with locations from coast to coast. Our companies provide an extensive coverage of products and services that support the success of a wide range of business sectors across Canada including the energy, oil & gas, manufacturing, construction, aerospace, infrastructure, utilities, oil and gas, mining and marine industries.

Hercules Group of Companies is comprised of: Hercules SLRHercules Machining & Millwright ServicesSpartan Industrial MarineStellar Industrial Sales and Wire Rope Atlantic.

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